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Stephen E. Lang and Wei-Kuo Tao

used, but there is also another option to consider. Yanai et al. (1973) recognized that the column-integrated apparent heating over an area sufficient for a cloud ensemble minus the radiation effects is balanced by the net surface precipitation and the net surface heat fluxes as follows: where Q 1 is the apparent heat source, Q R is the radiative heating rate, P o is the surface precipitation rate, S o is the surface heat flux, g is gravity, and L is the latent heat of condensation

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Liao-Fan Lin, Ardeshir M. Ebtehaj, Alejandro N. Flores, Satish Bastola, and Rafael L. Bras

1. Introduction Numerical climate and land–atmosphere models are widely used for providing land–atmospheric predictions at different time scales. These models typically capture both atmospheric thermodynamic processes and cloud microphysics to predict the dynamics of land–atmosphere water and energy fluxes. To improve the predictions of land–atmosphere state variables and parameters, a common practice is to assimilate observations from in situ gauges, radiosondes, and satellite measurements

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Dalia B. Kirschbaum, George J. Huffman, Robert F. Adler, Scott Braun, Kevin Garrett, Erin Jones, Amy McNally, Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Erich Stocker, Huan Wu, and Benjamin F. Zaitchik

estimates to drive a Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) implemented at 1-km resolution for malaria-prone regions in Peru and Ecuador. An LDAS is a land surface modeling system that merges advanced water and energy balance models with observational data to produce best-available estimates of hydrologic states and fluxes. In this application, the LDAS adds value to TRMM/GPM precipitation estimates by converting integrated rainfall totals into estimates of soil moisture variability ( Fig. 8 ) and

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W.-K. Tao, T. Iguchi, and S. Lang

schemes ( Chou and Suarez 1999 ; Chou et al. 2001 ; Matsui and Jacob 2014 ) to conduct high-resolution (3-km inner nested domains) extratropical simulations. The Goddard broadband two-stream (upward and downward fluxes) approach is used for the short- and longwave radiative flux and atmospheric heating calculations and its explicit interactions with clouds (microphysics). The Mellor–Yamada–Janjić ( Mellor and Yamada 1982 ) level 2 turbulence closure model is used for the planetary boundary layer

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Sara Q. Zhang, T. Matsui, S. Cheung, M. Zupanski, and C. Peters-Lidard

and the low-level monsoonal flow, or influence the pattern of moisture flux transport and convergence. In this section we examine the changes in the thermodynamic fields of short-term forecasts in CONTR and RADAS induced by the assimilation and assess the data impact on dynamic interaction in the WAM simulation. Temperature and humidity fields are directly related to cloud precipitation processes, and winds interact with physical processes through thermodynamics. The radiance data impact on these

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Jiaying Zhang, Liao-Fan Lin, and Rafael L. Bras

. , 1989 : A comprehensive mass flux scheme for cumulus parameterization in large-scale models . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 117 , 1779 – 1800 ,<1779:ACMFSF>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1989)117<1779:ACMFSF>2.0.CO;2 Vidale , P. L. , D. Lüthi , C. Frei , S. I. Seneviratne , and C. Schär , 2003 : Predictability and uncertainty in a regional climate model . J. Geophys. Res. , 108 , 4586 , . 10.1029/2002JD002810 Villarini

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Walter A. Petersen, Wesley Berg, Chris Kidd, Erich F. Stocker, Dalia B. Kirschbaum, Ramesh Kakar, Scott A. Braun, George J. Huffman, Toshio Iguchi, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, Robert Meneghini, Riko Oki, William S. Olson, Yukari N. Takayabu, Kinji Furukawa, and Thomas Wilheit

: Intercalibrating the GPM constellation using the GPM microwave imager (GMI). Int. Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symp. , Milan, Italy, IEEE, 5162–5165, doi: 10.1109/IGARSS.2015.7326996 . 10.1109/IGARSS.2015.7326996 Xia , Y. , and Coauthors , 2012 : Continental-scale water and energy flux analysis and validation for the North American Land Data Assimilation System project phase 2 (NLDAS-2): 1. Intercomparison and application of model products . J. Geophys. Res. , 117 , D03109 , doi: 10.1029/2011JD016048

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Gail Skofronick-Jackson, Mark Kulie, Lisa Milani, Stephen J. Munchak, Norman B. Wood, and Vincenzo Levizzani

eliminates the occurrence of snow over the Gulf of Alaska, northern Atlantic south and east of Iceland, and Southern Ocean north of about 50°S. The land–ocean disparities among various classification methods make sense in that cold air outbreaks over ocean produce steeper lapse rates than over land (because of the larger heat capacity of water), which coupled with the surface moisture flux are more likely to produce shallow convection ( Kulie et al. 2016 ; Kulie and Milani 2018 ). Thus, over

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