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Shizuo Suzuki, Masayuki Yokozawa, Kazuyuki Inubushi, Toshihiko Hara, Michitoshi Kimura, Shoichi Tsuga, Yasuhiro Tako, and Yuji Nakamura

-ground biomass carbon was 978 g C m −2 obtained using a core sampling method. Subsequently, soil and groundwater characteristics and carbon fluxes were investigated to estimate the effects of disturbance on the newly introduced wetland ecosystem. Soil redox potential (−193 to −227 mV), which affects CH 4 production, in the GM was similar to that of the wild wetland. Particle size distribution (dominant size: 106–250 μ m) of the soil profile in the GM was also similar to that of the wild wetland. Free

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Minseok Kang, Hyojung Kwon, Jung Hwa Cheon, and Joon Kim

cover of forests and frequent rainfalls. AsiaFlux, the Asian network of regional flux tower networks, has been conducting the long-term measurements of evapotranspiration (ET) and CO 2 fluxes using the eddy covariance (EC) system and has provided a series of gap-filled ET datasets. There are 18 forests sites out of 23 sites whose data are available through the AsiaFlux database ( https://db.cger.nies.go.jp/asiafluxdb/ ). Considering the important contribution of E WC to ET, it is essential to

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Paul A. Dirmeyer

volumetric water content ( Illston et al. 2008 ). The U.S. Department of Agriculture has built a nationwide network of stations called the Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) that uses electrical conductivity probes to measure soil wetness and temperature at depths down to 1 m ( Seyfried et al. 2005 ). Recently, the global network of flux network sites (FLUXNET; Baldocchi et al. 2001 ) has added soil wetness sensors to its existing turbulent flux measurement towers so the water balance can be better

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Yadu Pokhrel, Naota Hanasaki, Sujan Koirala, Jaeil Cho, Pat J.-F. Yeh, Hyungjun Kim, Shinjiro Kanae, and Taikan Oki

assess the impact of irrigation on the Indian peninsula. They successfully simulated irrigation water requirements and showed that intensive irrigation has a regional impact on the partitioning of energy between sensible and latent heat fluxes. However, they did not consider the effect of reservoir operation on the temporal variability of water available in the river channels. Several other modeling studies have quantified the influence of irrigation on regional climate ( Boucher et al. 2004

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Dai Matsushima, Reiji Kimura, and Masato Shinoda

(1992) . This model comprehensively considered the surface heat budget (e.g., van de Griend et al. 1985 ), not just the radiation and ground heat flux as in other models. Hence, the thermal inertia was estimated simultaneously with other parameters such as the bulk transfer coefficients of heat and the evaporation efficiency. The results of Matsushima (2006 , 2007) did not show sufficient quantitative resolution to estimate soil water content based on values of the thermal inertia. This may be

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Akihiko Ito and Motoko Inatomi

such as climatic change and ecosystem degradation, a deeper understanding of the carbon and water cycles is necessary for appropriate ecosystem management ( Chapin et al. 2009 ; Vörösmarty et al. 2010 ). This is one of the purposes of ecohydrology (e.g., Rodriguez-Iturbe 2000 )—a recently developed field of interdisciplinary research. In addition to leaf-level measurements and inventory surveys, recent advances in micrometeorological flux measurements have provided new data for evaluating the

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean cloud systems and their association with large-scale circulation . J. Geophys. Res. , 111 , D01102 , doi:10.1029/2005JD006460 . Dudhia, J. , 1989 : Numerical study of convection observed during the winter monsoon experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model . J. Atmos. Sci. , 46 , 3077 – 3107 . Dyer, A. J. , and Hicks B. B. , 1970 : Flux-gradient relationships in the constant flux layer . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 96 , 715 – 721 . Emanuel, K. , 2003 : Tropical

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Pablo Imbach, Luis Molina, Bruno Locatelli, Olivier Roupsard, Gil Mahé, Ronald Neilson, Lenin Corrales, Marko Scholze, and Philippe Ciais

based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for general circulation models . J. Geophys. Res. , 99 , 14 415 – 14 428 . Lozano-García, M. S. , Caballero M. , Ortega B. , Rodríguez A. , and Sosa S. , 2007 : Tracing the effects of the Little Ice Age in the tropical lowlands of eastern Mesoamerica . Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA , 104 , 16 200 – 16 203 . MacFadden, B. J. , 2006 : Extinct mammalian biodiversity of the ancient New World tropics . Trends Ecol. Evol. , 21 , 157

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