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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

depressed in these regions, thus indicating light snowfall rates associated with shallow cumuliform snow ( Fig. 9 ). Unlike the complicated and regionally variable Northern Hemispheric shallow snowfall pattern, the Southern Hemisphere displays a fairly uniform shallow snowfall frequency ( Fig. 8 ) and contribution to annual snowfall ( Fig. 9 ) gradient from north to south, with equatorward latitudes receiving more shallow snowfall events and surface precipitation flux from shallow snow. The high snow

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

1. Introduction Because of the smaller heat capacity of soil compared to water, the amplitudes of the diurnal cycle of surface total available turbulent (latent and sensible) heat flux and skin temperature tend to be greater over land than ocean. This likely amplifies lower-atmospheric heat energy in the afternoon, which often increases buoyant force, as measured by convective available potential energy (CAPE; Pielke 2001 ). As a result, continental precipitation is most frequently observed

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Ali Behrangi, Bin Guan, Paul J. Neiman, Mathias Schreier, and Bjorn Lambrigtsen

. , Ferraro R. R. , Poe G. , Li X. F. , and Grody N. C. , 2003 : Advanced microwave sounding unit cloud and precipitation algorithms . Radio Sci. , 38 , 8068 , doi: 10.1029/2002RS002679 . Zhu, Y. , and Newell R. E. , 1994 : Atmospheric rivers and bombs . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 21 , 1999 – 2002 , doi: 10.1029/94GL01710 . Zhu, Y. , and Newell R. E. , 1998 : A proposed algorithm for moisture fluxes from atmospheric rivers . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 725 – 735 , doi: 10

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Chris Kidd, Toshihisa Matsui, Jiundar Chern, Karen Mohr, Chris Kummerow, and Dave Randel

the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 4 (GEOS-4), and the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. The GCE utilizes the new Goddard four-class ice formulation (4ICE) microphysics, which includes explicit hail categories and many improved microphysics parameterizations ( Lang et al. 2014 ; Chern et al. 2015, manuscript submitted to J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. ). GEOS-4 simulates general circulations and surface flux with a climate-scale grid configuration (2.5° × 2.0° horizontal grid

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

Burges S. J. , 1994 : A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for GSMs . J. Geophys. Res. , 99 , 14 415 – 14 428 , doi: 10.1029/94JD00483 . Luchetti, N. T. , Sutton J. R. , Wright E. E. , Kruk M. C. , and Marra J. J. , 2016 : When El Niño rages: How satellite data can help water-stressed islands . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , doi: 10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00219.1 , in press . Maggioni, V. , Vergara H. J. , Anagnostou E. N. , Gourley J. J. , Hong Y

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