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Derek J. Posselt and Tomislava Vukicevic

saturation with respect to liquid at temperatures above freezing and with respect to ice below. Time-evolving profiles of vertical motion and water vapor forcing ( Figs. 1b,c , respectively) consistent with observed and simulated squall-line-type evolution ( Moncreiff 1992 ; Fovell and Tan 1998 ; Houze 2004 ) are used to drive the simulation. The model is run with 60 vertical layers with constant 250-m vertical grid spacing and a 5-s time step, and the radiative transfer, surface flux, and

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Andrew Tangborn, Robert Cooper, Steven Pawson, and Zhibin Sun

1. Introduction Understanding the terrestrial carbon cycle is of prime importance to predicting the evolution of climate and ecosystems. It is particularly useful to gain knowledge of the fluxes of carbon species between land and atmosphere and ocean and atmosphere; without this knowledge, an understanding of the physical and biological processes that govern the present-day carbon budget cannot be attained, which in turn means that there is little chance of accurately predicting future climate

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Marc Bocquet

understood on physical grounds ( Bocquet 2005a ). However, the solution is no longer impacted by the observations except in the vicinity of the observation sites. In this context, it is therefore mandatory to make an educated choice on a (if not the) proper scale of the representation. Building on Bocquet (2005a) , general results will be obtained on this issue in section 2 . d. Greenhouse gas fluxes estimation: An optimal representation problem The driving force of global warming is very likely to be

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