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Ailie J. E. Gallant, Steven J. Phipps, David J. Karoly, A. Brett Mullan, and Andrew M. Lorrey

et al. (2006) . Both are fully coupled atmosphere–ocean models with no flux adjustments and differ primarily in their dynamical treatment of the atmosphere. They have the same grid resolution and the land and atmosphere components utilize a 2.0° latitude by 2.5° longitude grid with 24 vertical levels. The ocean component has 50 vertical levels and is on a 1.0° latitude by 1.0° longitude grid poleward of 30° with resolution increasing to ⅓° at the equator. The control simulation from the UKMO

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Steven J. Phipps, Helen V. McGregor, Joëlle Gergis, Ailie J. E. Gallant, Raphael Neukom, Samantha Stevenson, Duncan Ackerley, Josephine R. Brown, Matt J. Fischer, and Tas D. van Ommen

models and 2.8° longitude by 1.6° latitude for the ocean model. There are 18 vertical levels in the atmosphere and 21 in the ocean. Mk3L produces a realistic simulation of the modern climate ( Phipps et al. 2011 ) and has utility for studying the response of the climate system to both natural and anthropogenic forcings ( Phipps and Brown 2010 ; Phipps et al. 2012 ). Flux adjustments with a fixed annual cycle are used to minimize drift and to improve the realism of the simulated climate. The spatial

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Howard J. Diamond, Andrew M. Lorrey, and James A. Renwick

be determined, the findings of this work have allowed us to pose hypotheses that indicate sea–air flux changes as well as the importance of Sverdrup transport anomalies in the equatorial Pacific region that need to be tested in future studies. Furthermore, use of the CEI approach adds to the overall body of knowledge regarding TC behavior in the southwest Pacific that could be applied to similar studies for other tropical basins. Subdividing the SPEArTC data in terms of the degree of ocean

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