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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

1. Introduction a. Background and motivation Land surface models simulate distinct diurnal cycles of turbulent heat fluxes, but they also show systematic deviations from observations, which were reported in early ( Henderson-Sellers et al. 1995 ; Chen et al. 1997 ) and more recent model intercomparison studies ( Holtslag et al. 2013 ; Best et al. 2015 ). Best et al. (2015) used observational meteorological forcing to drive and evaluate state-of-the-art models at 20 different flux towers. A

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Samson M. Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, Oluwayemi A. Garuba, Charlotte Demott, Bryce Harrop, Jian Lu, and Min-Seop Ahn

Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN; Ashouri et al. 2015 ) and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42; Huffman et al. 2010 ) and the Woods Hole Objectively Analyzed Flux Project daily evaporation data (OAFlux; Yu et al. 2008 ). All data are remapped to uniform 2° grid spacing. The study is focused on the tropics between 20°S and 20°N. We analyzed two 15-yr periods: 2000–14 for the historical simulations and 2086–2100 for the future

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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) regridding software ( https://www.ncl.ucar.edu/Applications/ESMF.shtml ) and the NetCDF Operators ( Zender 2019 ). Brightness temperature T b and precipitation (i.e., flux variables) are regridded using conservative mapping, and MCS location masks are regridded using nearest neighbor to preserve their tracked numbers. The regridding procedure essentially creates a reference MCS dataset that depicts MCS T b and precipitation characteristics at the respective

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Suzana J. Camargo, Claudia F. Giulivi, Adam H. Sobel, Allison A. Wing, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Jeffrey D. O. Strong, Anthony D. Del Genio, Maxwell Kelley, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

account in the original genesis index. Zhao and Held (2012) explored the relationship of TC activity with various environmental variables using one of the climate models from our study (P3) and found that the strongest relationship was with vertical velocity at 500 hPa. Furthermore, the same authors argued in Held and Zhao (2011) that the atmospheric vertical mass flux can be useful in understanding the reduction of TC hurricane activity in their idealized climate change experiments. However

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

flux between the inner and outer region of the composite TCs. These results indicate the importance of moisture–convection coupling and feedbacks between the surface latent heat flux and convection. Here, we develop and apply an additional, related set of diagnostics to further analyze the role of these and other processes in simulated TCs, in six high-resolution climate models. The paper is organized as follows. We provide a brief description of the six high-resolution models used in this study in

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Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Suzana J. Camargo, Allison A. Wing, Adam H. Sobel, Hiroyuki Murakami, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, and Eric Page

centered at the TC but excluding the inner 1000-km square area. The moisture–convection coupling within the TCs is analyzed using precipitation, precipitable water, and free-tropospheric (850–100 hPa) column relative humidity (CRH). Surface turbulent fluxes and surface and TOA radiative fluxes are employed to examine the surface enthalpy flux feedback and the cloud–radiation feedback processes. d. Composite on precipitation percentiles To provide further insights among models in their TC simulations

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

adept at qualitatively linking CWV values to the precipitation onset if the lateral entrainment is replaced with a prescribed environmental deep inflow: a constantly increasing mass flux with height (from the surface to the midtroposphere). This paradigm of entrainment is consistent with the updraft (or an ensemble of updrafts) interacting with an inflow of air that can include a coherent, organized component instead of merely incorporating peripheral environmental air through small

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Grey S. Nearing, Benjamin L. Ruddell, Martyn P. Clark, Bart Nijssen, and Christa Peters-Lidard

1. Introduction The Protocol for the Analysis of Land Surface Models (PALS) Land Surface Model Benchmarking Evaluation Project (PLUMBER) benchmarking experiments by Best et al. (2015) showed that some of the world’s most sophisticated operational land models (CABLE, CH-TESSEL, COLA-SSiB, ISBA-SURFEX, JULES, Mosaic, Noah, ORCHIDEE) were outperformed in their ability to simulate short-term surface energy fluxes by simple regressions. Specifically, the PLUMBER experiments used piecewise

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

1. Introduction Evaporation of water from the land to the atmosphere is a key process regulating and coupling the carbon, energy, and water budgets of the land surface. As such, it is critical that land evaporation be represented accurately in model simulations of the physical climate and in Earth system model simulations of the coupled carbon cycle and climate system. Representing the land–atmosphere fluxes of water and energy in response to available energy (e.g., radiation) and water input

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Xianan Jiang, Ángel F. Adames, Ming Zhao, Duane Waliser, and Eric Maloney

2010 ; Jiang et al. 2011 ) and surface heat fluxes from the objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes (OAFlux) project ( Yu et al. 2008 ) are also used to examine impacts of radiation and surface fluxes on MJO propagation. Daily output of rainfall and specific humidity from 20-yr simulations of 24 GCMs, participating in the MJO Task Force (MJOTF)/GEWEX Atmospheric System Study (GASS) MJO model intercomparison project ( Petch et al. 2011 ; Jiang et al. 2015 ; Klingaman et al. 2015 ) is also analyzed to

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