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M. A. Rawlins, S. Frolking, R. B. Lammers, and C. J. Vörösmarty

1. Introduction Changes are occurring to high-latitude environments with further alteration likely under several global change scenarios. Responses in the arctic environment may include alterations to the landscape and in water fluxes and stores. While conceptual water balance models have proved useful in assessing contemporary hydrological conditions and in modeling future states, general circulation models have not proved accurate enough to close water budgets in hydrological applications

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Joy Clein, A. David McGuire, Eugenie S. Euskirchen, and Monika Calef

simulations, we compared the mean monthly and interannual variability of three carbon fluxes simulated by TEM: 1) net primary production (NPP), 2) heterotrophic respiration ( R h ), and 3) net ecosystem production (NEP). We also compared cumulative changes in vegetation, soil, and total carbon storage among the three simulations. To evaluate one of the conclusions of Kimball et al. ( Kimball et al. 2007 ), we compared how the ratio of vegetation to soil carbon is changing through time among the three

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A. D. McGuire, J. E. Walsh, J. S. Kimball, J. S. Clein, S. E. Euskirchen, S. Drobot, U. C. Herzfeld, J. Maslanik, R. B. Lammers, M. A. Rawlins, C. J. Vorosmarty, T. S. Rupp, W. Wu, and M. Calef

). The Kuparuk Flux Study ( Kane and Reeburgh 1998 ) and the Arctic Transitions in the Land Atmosphere System Study (ATLAS; McGuire et al. 2003 ) have also been conducted in the western Arctic during the last two decades to understand the role of tundra ecosystems in the Earth system. The WALE region is defined in terms of nodes of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) north polar Equal-Area Scalable Earth (EASE) grid ( Armstrong and Brodzik 1995 ). The region spans a latitudinal range from

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Wanli Wu, Amanda H. Lynch, Sheldon Drobot, James Maslanik, A. David McGuire, and Ute Herzfeld

because of technical and environmental limitations. It has been suggested that an alternative to estimating terrestrial water and energy cycles is to use land surface models (LSMs; Bonan 2002 ) or regional climate models (RCMs; Wu and Lynch 2000 ; Wu et al. 2005 ). The models close the water and energy budget by design. Thus, if the large-scale forcing data, which drive LSMs and RCMs, are accurate, and if model biases are small, these modeled water and energy fluxes might be used in lieu of

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J. S. Kimball, M. Zhao, A. D. McGuire, F. A. Heinsch, J. Clein, M. Calef, W. M. Jolly, S. Kang, S. E. Euskirchen, K. C. McDonald, and S. W. Running

aggregation of model outputs within each grid cell was based on linear weighting of dominant and subdominant land cover classes, with no lateral transfers of mass or energy within a specified grid cell or between adjacent grid cells. We then aggregated the estimated fluxes across all grid cells in the study region to produce regional estimates. 2.1. Production Efficiency Model calculations A biome-specific PEM was used to calculate GPP and NPP for unmasked grid cells within the 25-km resolution EASE

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J. S. Kimball, K. C. McDonald, and M. Zhao

spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 82 : 2415 – 2434 . Barber , V. , G. P. Juday , and B. P. Finney . 2000 . Reduced growth of Alaskan white spruce in the twentieth century from temperature-induced drought stress. Nature 405 : 668 – 673 . Beringer , J. , F. S. Chapin III , C. C. Thompson , and A. D. McGuire . 2005 . Surface energy exchanges along a tundra-forest transition and feedbacks

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