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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

1. Introduction Diurnal warm layers (DWLs) form when strong solar radiation and weak-to-moderate winds allow near-surface stratification to develop. In the tropics DWLs appear around 0800 local time (LT), which is 1–2 h after sunrise, as the surface heat flux changes from net ocean cooling to net warming ( Martin 1985 ; Fairall et al. 1996 ; Moulin et al. 2018 ). Heat and momentum trapped in this stratified layer cause sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of O (0.1–1°C) and near

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Kyle Chudler, Weixin Xu, and Steven A. Rutledge

Fig. 9 . The red star in (b) is the launch location of the atmospheric soundings discussed in section 2d . These offshore rainfall maxima have previously been examined in modeling studies. Ogura and Yoshizaki (1988) utilized a two-dimensional cloud model to examine the Western Ghats precipitation maximum. They found that both vertical wind shear and ocean surface fluxes contributed to the offshore precipitation maximum. When either of these factors were suppressed in the model simulations, the

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

1. Introduction One of the principal means of characterizing a turbulent flow is by its kinetic energy (KE) spectrum ( Frisch 1995 ). The KE spectrum, along with other information such as the nature of small-scale intermittency, the direction of interscale energy flux and the partition of KE between rotational and divergent components of the flow, constrains the possible dynamics of a fluid. Along these lines, in a quest to better understand its dynamics, the ocean’s surface KE spectrum has

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

high sun angle, the DWL is confined to the top 1–2 m (e.g., Soloviev and Lukas 1997 ; Ward 2006 ). By midafternoon, sea surface temperature (SST) can increase by order 1°C, with variations primarily caused by water clarity and insolation. The increased surface temperature increases heat fluxes through the air–sea interface ( Matthews et al. 2014 ), whereas the increased stratification reduces turbulent mixing in the remnant mixed layer below the DWL. Turbulence dissipation rates in this remnant

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

et al. (2010 , 2012a , b) first documented the relationship between downwelling equatorial Rossby waves and ISO convective onset, and their work inspired much of this investigation. Webber et al. (2010) suggested that surface latent heat flux anomalies manifest in response to warm SST anomalies associated with oceanic downwelling equatorial Rossby waves and are responsible for ISO convective onset. However, using reanalysis data, Rydbeck and Jensen (2017) did not observe notable increases

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

visible in maps of the depth of the 34.75-psu isohaline surface, which shallows by 25 m or so in the southwestern Bay during the summer monsoon ( Figs. 2k–o ; Murty et al. 1992 ; Vinayachandran et al. 2013 ). The shallow depth of the S = 35-psu isohaline in the southwestern and south-central Bay relative to the northern Bay led Vinayachandran et al. (2013) to hypothesize that the southern Bay is a site of enhanced mixing and associated salt fluxes that may be an important contributor to the salt

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

eddy variability ( Schott et al. 2009 ; Dandapat and Chakraborty 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016a , b ). Highly dynamic heat and moisture fluxes drive the ISOs in the BoB and bring in seasonal and complex subseasonal variability ( Goswami et al. 2016 ; Weller et al. 2016 ; Sanchez-Franks et al. 2018 ). The ISOs of the BoB can be categorized into three major components of atmospherically driven coupled air–sea oscillations: the 30–90-day signal associated with the monsoon ISO (MISO) and Madden

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

1. Introduction Enthalpy flux from the warm ocean to the atmosphere sustains the heavy rainfall and destructive winds associated with tropical cyclones. Cooling of sea surface temperature (SST) due to storm-induced mixing with deeper ocean water inhibits cyclone intensity (e.g., Price 1981 ; Emanuel 1999 ; Schade and Emanuel 1999 ; Zedler et al. 2002 ; D’Asaro 2003 ; Emanuel 2003 ; Lloyd et al. 2011 ), while rapid intensification of cyclones has been observed in regions with anomalously

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

. Neelin , 2010 : Temporal relations of column water vapor and tropical precipitation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 1091 – 1105 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JAS3284.1 . 10.1175/2009JAS3284.1 Hong , S.-Y. , and H.-L. Pan , 1998 : Convective trigger function for a mass-flux cumulus parameterization scheme . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 126 , 2599 – 2620 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<2599:CTFFAM>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1998)126<2599:CTFFAM>2.0.CO;2 Houze , R. A. , S. G. Geotis , F

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Sebastian Essink, Verena Hormann, Luca R. Centurioni, and Amala Mahadevan

generated by massive seasonal freshwater fluxes, mainly from major rivers in the north, and intense precipitation during the southwest monsoon. The shallow freshwater cap affects the evolution of the sea surface temperature (SST; Jaeger and Mahadevan 2018 ) and the upper-ocean’s heat content ( Shroyer et al. 2016 ; Mahadevan et al. 2016 ), both of which can alter the air–sea fluxes and, hence, affect the monsoon dynamics. The Air–Sea Interaction Regional Initiative (ASIRI; Lucas et al. 2014

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