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A. J. Meijers, N. L. Bindoff, and J. L. Roberts

Topography Experiment (TOPEX)/Poseidon altimetry data analysis. Property transport by eddy activity appears to be particularly important across the ACC where there can be no mean geostrophic flow across mass transport streamlines ( De Szoeke and Levine 1981 ). The ocean loses a substantial amount of heat to the atmosphere south of the ACC, however, requiring a poleward heat flux. A current meter study south of Australia by Phillips and Rintoul (2000) found that the 0.9 PW of heat transported poleward

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

the ability to estimate the individual contributions to sea level change, and the steric (thermosteric, halosteric) and the eustatic effects (local freshwater balance, mass redistribution) separately. Please note that the model cannot distinguish between the individual contributions to the surface freshwater flux. The datasets used in the assimilation experiment include the following: monthly sea surface temperatures (SST) for the period 1993–2003 ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ); gridded fields of 10-day

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Claudia Pasquero and Eli Tziperman

. KPP seems to be the only parameterization used in ocean models that allows for upgradient fluxes. A recently introduced turbulence closure model ( Canuto et al. 2001 , 2002 ) was tested under deep convection conditions ( Canuto et al. 2004 ). In this paper, we suggest a statistical convection parameterization that accounts for possible unresolved static instabilities on a subgrid scale. Specifically, if the gridbox-average density at a given location is ρ , then the actual density variations

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

and inflow estimated from direct current-meter observations have a volume flux of 0.97 and 1.01 Sv (1 Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ), respectively ( Candela 2001 ). The transport through the Strait of Gibraltar varies on a wide range of frequencies. Tidal currents are the most dominant and significantly modify the net flow through the strait. For instance, tides account for nearly one-half of the net Atlantic Ocean–Mediterranean Sea exchange because of correlation between tidal currents and the depth of

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis project ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ), and twice-daily wind stress fields are used to force the model at its surface. The meridional boundaries are closed; that is, no volume flux occurs normal to them. In addition, no relaxation of the model fields toward the climatological temperature T and salinity S fields was applied at the poleward lateral boundaries to avoid artificial sinks and sources of heat and

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

are expected to lead to enhanced turbulent mixing. Loder and Garrett (1978) considered a perturbation in the near-surface temperature gradient in a diffusive model. Here, we consider the variation of temperature in the entire water column, using a diffusion–advection model for guidance. Next, we estimate the variability in the poleward flux of heat as a consequence of the temperature perturbation, using a simple model of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC). These are two independent

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Martin Losch and Patrick Heimbach

-ocean heat content ( Huang et al. 2003 ), water mass origins and pathways in the Pacific ( Fukumori et al. 2004 ), the carbon sequestration efficiency ( Hill et al. 2004 ) in ocean models, optimal observing system design ( Köhl and Stammer 2004 ), the sensitivity of ocean biological productivity to iron fluxes ( Dutkiewicz et al. 2006 ), and the impact of open boundary conditions in a regional North Atlantic circulation ( Ayoub 2006 ). Other groups have developed adjoint components of their OGCMs as well

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Reiner Schlitzer

previously been fitted to global hydrographic, nutrient, oxygen, and carbon fields. The general model strategy is described in detail in Schlitzer (1993 , 1995 , 2000 . Model applications aimed at the estimation of marine export production and biogeochemical fluxes can be found in Schlitzer (2002 , 2004 and Schlitzer et al. (2004) . In the following, the general model setup is described briefly. Emphasis is on the extensions with respect to the assimilation of natural radiocarbon and CFC data. The

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

, whereas measurements from satellite altimetry suggest an increase of 3.1 mm yr −1 for the same period ( Antonov et al. 2005 ), leaving a residual of 1.5 mm yr −1 to be accounted for by nonthermosteric effects. Assuming a constant or near-constant global mean salinity, halosteric sea level changes are of second order globally, but can be very important regionally because of anomalous freshwater fluxes ( Antonov et al. 2002 ). Interannual to decadal variability of local and global rates of sea level

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Peter Huybers, Geoffrey Gebbie, and Olivier Marchal

circulation. Second, they conducted two inversions to evaluate whether the glacial benthic δ 18 O and δ 13 C data are consistent with (i) the reference circulation or (ii) another circulation characterized by a southward NADW flux reduced by half. They concluded that these data are consistent with both circulations. More generally, LW95 concluded that conservative tracers are unable to constrain rates of circulation, only informing regarding the standing stock of water, and that a “clock” as provided

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