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Sergey Gulev, Thomas Jung, and Eberhard Ruprecht

possibility of two-way atmosphere–ocean interaction is very attractive because it implies that climate variations may to some extent be predictable. In this context surface heat fluxes play a crucial role, since it is through the fluxes at the sea surface that the atmosphere and ocean communicate. There are different ways to study the variability of air–sea interaction. Coupled models have been widely used since, among others, they can provide relatively long time series of the characteristics of the

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Ludos-Herve Ayina, Abderrahim Bentamy, Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, and Gurvan Madec

1. Introduction One of the tasks of operational oceanography is to use a numerical model to simulate and forecast the oceanic general circulation on various spatial and temporal scales. The modeling of the oceanic circulation requires accurate knowledge of the turbulent fluxes exchanged at the ocean–atmosphere interface. The main surface fluxes involved in this exchange are the momentum flux (wind stress), the turbulent heat fluxes (latent and sensible), and the freshwater fluxes (evaporation

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John E. Walsh, William L. Chapman, and Diane H. Portis

-phase and ice-phase clouds; basic cloud microphysical properties; the relative importance of surface versus advective moisture fluxes in the formation of clouds; and the interactions among turbulence, radiation, and cloud microphysics in the evolution of the cloudy atmospheric boundary layer. While GCMs are the primary tool for projecting global climate change, validations with observed data, such as those produced by ARM, are only possible in a climatological sense. That is, direct day-by-day and hour

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Tapio Schneider, Karen L. Smith, Paul A. O’Gorman, and Christopher C. Walker

1. Introduction Water vapor fields and fluxes in the troposphere are affected by processes on many scales. The specific humidity in the boundary layer is directly related to evaporation from the surface. From the boundary layer, water vapor is transported upward by large-scale eddies and, particularly in the deep Tropics, by convection. Transport and evaporation of condensate moistens the vicinity of moist-convective regions (see, e.g., Sun and Lindzen 1993 ; Emanuel and Pierrehumbert 1995

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Jiping Liu, Tingyin Xiao, and Liqi Chen

1. Introduction Air–sea fluxes of energy establish the link between ocean surface temperature change and atmospheric circulation variability, and provide mechanisms by which ocean variability is forced by the atmosphere. Accurate knowledge of air–sea flux variability is extremely important for understanding and simulating variations in the coupled ocean–atmosphere system and feedbacks in the climate system (e.g., Curry et al. 2004 ; Frankignoul et al. 2004 ). Nowhere is this knowledge more

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Sergey Gulev, Thomas Jung, and Eberhard Ruprecht

1. Introduction Accurate knowledge of air–sea flux fields is required for global and regional budget studies, forcing ocean general circulation models and analysis of climate variability. Global and regional surface flux fields are presently available from atmospheric modeling, remote sensing, and from the computations of fluxes using voluntary observing ship (VOS) data. Complete space–time coverage of fluxes and related fields are now available from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models

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Amanda L. Siemann, Nathaniel Chaney, and Eric F. Wood

1. Introduction The partitioning of available energy at the land surface produces the turbulent fluxes between the surface and the atmosphere, including sensible heat flux and latent heat flux, which transfer heat and water, respectively ( Pipunic et al. 2008 ). While these fluxes are measured in situ using eddy covariance in tower networks (e.g., Oak Ridge National Laboratory 2016 ) and during field campaigns (e.g., the Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study; Sellers et al. 1997 ), satellite

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Erik Sahlée, Ann-Sofi Smedman, Anna Rutgersson, and Ulf Högström

1. Introduction The single most important source of atmospheric water vapor is evaporation from the global oceans ( Peixoto and Oort 1992 ). Thus, it is easy to realize the importance of understanding the processes governing the air–sea flux of water vapor for predicting and understanding climate and climate change. Compared to the latent heat flux, the air–sea flux of sensible heat per area unit is generally much smaller over the ocean. However, since the global oceans cover about 70% of the

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Masanori Konda, Hiroshi Ichikawa, Hiroyuki Tomita, and Meghan F. Cronin

north–south contrast of the ocean surface structure can affect the modification of the air mass through changes in the exchange of heat, moisture, and momentum. The large heat flux in the KE region is correlated with the basin-scale air–sea coupling systems such as the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and other subsequent modes ( Mantua et al. 1997 ; Bond et al. 2003 ; Kwon and Deser 2007 ; Di Lorenzo et al. 2008 ). Previous studies have pointed out that the atmospheric circulation field

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Chunmei Zhu and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

extremity of the much more pronounced NAMS phenomenon over northwestern Mexico). A key to understanding this predictability is datasets that support analyses of land–atmosphere interactions. The dataset described in this paper arises from this motivation. To date, data that will support land–atmosphere feedback studies within the NAMS region, particularly land surface states and fluxes such as soil moisture and turbulent heat fluxes, have been essentially nonexistent. This is a result mostly of the

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