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Jesse O. Bash, Patricia Bresnahan, and David R. Miller

, chemical, and biological manner ( Wesely and Hicks 2000 ). Emissions must be coupled with deposition to create a more realistic model of the air–surface interface that will remain relevant on surfaces where the direction and magnitude of the flux depends on the concentration gradient. In this paper we present a theoretical framework for modeling the flux of mercury (Hg) between the atmosphere and natural surfaces based on a dynamic compartmentalized surface interface (DCSI) approach that provides a

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Francis S. Binkowski, Saravanan Arunachalam, Zachariah Adelman, and Joseph P. Pinto

extraterrestrial solar flux at that wavelength. These individual weighted values are then summed over the range of wavelengths included in that interval and are then divided by the total extraterrestrial solar flux for that range of wavelengths. When used within CMAQ, the new updated absorption CSs and QYs are adjusted for the time-varying local temperature at the model synchronization time step. As is currently done in CMAQ, the original JPROC effective cross sections are not adjusted for temperature. Rather

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Golam Sarwar and Prakash V. Bhave

in the Caltech Airshed Model. The model also included sea-salt emissions fluxes from the open ocean and coastal surf zone and several heterogeneous reactions leading to Cl 2 formation. They conducted air quality simulations for 8–9 September 1993 and concluded that the sea-salt-derived chlorine emissions can increase morning O 3 concentrations by a maximum of 12 ppbv in the coastal area and the peak O 3 concentrations by a maximum of 4 ppbv. Chang and Allen (2006) extended their earlier work

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Steven R. Hanna, Robert Paine, David Heinold, Elizabeth Kintigh, and Dan Baker

urban terrain and 2) assuming sources are surrounded by either rural or urban terrain, following EPA (1995) criteria. The Bowen ratio (BR; defined as the ratio of the sensible heat flux to the latent heat flux) is another input used by AERMOD and not ISCST3, and is assumed to be lognormally distributed with a 95% range of a factor of 2 for both hour-to-hour and site-to-site perturbations. Vertical temperature gradient dT / dz is assumed to have a lognormal distribution with a 95% range of a

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George Kallos, Marina Astitha, Petros Katsafados, and Chris Spyrou

08301, doi:10.1029/2003JD004079 . Environ , 2003 : User’s guide to the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Version 4.00. 251 pp . Escudero , M. , 2006 : Suspended particulate matter and wet deposition fluxes in regional background areas of the Iberian Peninsula. Ph.D. thesis, University of Barcelona, 334 pp . Galperin , M. , and M. Sofiev , 1998 : The long-range transport of ammonia and ammonium in the Northern Hemisphere. Atmos. Environ. , 32 , 373 – 380

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John S. Irwin, William B. Petersen, and Steven C. Howard

fluctuations and fluxes. J. Fluid Mech. , 139 , 193 – 218 . Sykes , R. I. , W. S. Lewellen , S. F. Parker , and D. S. Henn , 1988 : A hierarchy of dynamic plume models incorporating uncertainty. Vol. 4: Second-order closure integrated puff. Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) EA-6095, Project 1616-28, 180 pp. [Available from R. I. Sykes, ARAP/Titan, 50 Washington Rd., P.O. Box 2229, Princeton, NJ 08543-2229.] . Sykes , R. I. , S. F. Parker , D. S. Henn , and W. S. Lewellen

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C. Hogrefe, W. Hao, K. Civerolo, J.-Y. Ku, G. Sistla, R. S. Gaza, L. Sedefian, K. Schere, A. Gilliland, and R. Mathur

, especially for the New York City metropolitan area. Such research needs to focus on the magnitude and temporal allocation of primary PM 2.5 emissions, vertical mixing processes in an urban environment, and quantification of deposition fluxes. It has also been shown that overpredictions at one or a few central urban monitors such as those shown in section 3 can bias predictions for an entire region, such as those currently utilized by NYSDEC for issuing air quality forecasts to the public. The NYSDEC

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M. Talat Odman, Yongtao Hu, Alper Unal, Armistead G. Russell, and James W. Boylan

height of approximately 14 km. The lowest four layers were 36 m thick. Earlier evaluations of the effects of the number of layers and layer thicknesses showed that this setup is adequate for modeling surface layer concentrations and deposition fluxes even during stable nighttime conditions ( Morris et al. 2004 ). Anthropogenic emissions were considered in ground-level and elevated source categories. Ground-level sources include on-road and nonroad mobile sources, area sources, and area fires

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