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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

; presence of heterogeneities in surface conditions such as dry land adjacent to wet land or alternating dry and wet patches) are important since they affect the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. Roy and Avissar (2002) found that coherent mesoscale circulations were triggered by surface heterogeneities in Amazonia. Otterman (1977 , 31–41) speculated that anthropogenic changes from bare soil to a complex vegetated surface in regions of marginal rainfall can favor convective

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, M. Vertenstein, and C. S. B. Grimmond

relatively simple approaches (i.e., categories 1 and 2 above) may arguably be justified based on the fact that detail in complex models may be lost when averaged to a coarse grid ( Taha 1999 ). However, they may not have sufficient functionality to be suitable for inclusion in global climate models and may require global derivation of parameters that are difficult to interpret physically [e.g., the surface type–dependent empirical coefficients for storage heat flux in the Objective Hysteresis Model

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K. W. Oleson, G. B. Bonan, J. Feddema, and M. Vertenstein

processes controlling energy and water fluxes and 2) the characterization of urban morphology and urban materials with respect to aerodynamic, radiative, and heat transfer properties (e.g., Terjung and O’Rourke 1980 ; Arnfield 2000 ; Masson 2000 ; Grimmond and Oke 2002 ; Martilli et al. 2002 ; Best 2005 ; Oleson et al. 2008 , hereinafter Part I ). We have developed an urban parameterization to simulate urban systems on a global scale ( Part I ) under a wide variety of climate and surface

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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

improve the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) simulations using improved surface boundary conditions in atmospheric models. The surface fluxes, and to some extent the entrainment fluxes at the top of the ABL, determine ABL structure and evolution. Improved surface fluxes over land require, in addition to surface observations of temperature and humidity, detailed observations of soil moisture and soil temperature. Soil moisture (and soil temperature) is not available from most routine meteorological

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