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Paola Cessi and Christopher L. Wolfe

averaged EKE for an eddy-resolving computation (cf. Wolfe and Cessi 2009 ). The release of APE is accompanied by a flattening of the isopycnals, leading to horizontal buoyancy gradients on the eastern and western boundaries. Figure 3 shows the time-averaged buoyancy on the eastern and western boundaries for an eddy-resolving computation. Eddy buoyancy (and momentum) fluxes are associated with the field of mesoscale eddies near the boundaries. In this work we show that the eddy fluxes of buoyancy

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R. M. Samelson

, with its circumpolar connection, and have been interpreted to suggest instead that the amplitude of the overturning cell is controlled by Southern Hemisphere winds ( Toggweiler and Samuels 1995 ). Related work suggests the importance of eddy fluxes across the circumpolar current in establishing the balances that control the overturning cell ( Gnanadesikan 1999 ; Hallberg and Gnanadesikan 2001 , 2006 ; MacCready and Rhines 2001 ). Here, a simple, closed dynamical model of the warm-water branch of

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K. Shafer Smith and John Marshall

we use to “measure” eddy fluxes. The model is quasigeostrophic (QG) and horizontally periodic, but uses the mean hydrography (shear and stratification) of a location that is coincident with the field study of Phillips and Rintoul (2000 , hereafter PR00 ). PR00 compute eddy stress, energy, and flux, using an array of direct current measurements in a location just south of Tasmania, in the core of the ACC. We use their measured estimates as a benchmark against which to compare our modeled eddy

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Baylor Fox-Kemper and Raffaele Ferrari

1. Introduction The ubiquitous mesoscale eddies in the ocean affect the transport and structure of tracers: salt, potential temperature, potential density, and potential vorticity (PV). The turbulent character of these eddies makes for few tractable observational, analytical, and numerical approaches. Formal mathematical treatments of eddy fluxes have revealed that careful manipulation of the definition of an eddy may provide advantages in capturing the eddy–mean flow interaction. The

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Carl Wunsch and Patrick Heimbach

to the variability. Ocean dynamics depend most directly on the mass (volume) flux, whereas the coupled atmosphere responds most immediately to the enthalpy (heat) transport and, particularly, the related sea surface temperature. Oceanic freshwater transport is also important, but in the interests of restricting the length of this discussion, we here omit any discussion of freshwater and salinity. 2. Mean global volume and enthalpy (heat) transports a. Volume transport Some of the time

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Yafang Zhong and Zhengyu Liu

heat and salt budget analyses. Section 7 supplies further discussion on the nature of PMV. 2. Model and experimental design CCSM3 is a state-of-art global climate model consisting of four components of the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice, and land surface, which are linked through a flux coupler ( Collins et al. 2006 ). We use the version of CCSM3 at T31x3 resolution ( Yeager et al. 2006 ). The atmospheric component is the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3) at T31 resolution with 26 levels in

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J. A. Whitehead

1. Introduction A clear understanding of the dynamics of ocean circulation is required for many fundamental topics within earth science. For example, the contribution of ocean circulation to equator-to-pole heat flux is central to the explanation of past climate changes and is required for any prediction of future climate change. In addition, ocean circulation has fundamental consequences to biological and chemical changes within the ocean, including sequestering of CO 2 . It is now well known

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Onno Bokhove and Vijaya Ambati

are negligible and scale with the mesh size and order of accuracy. The numerical method conserves vorticity and energy for infinitesimally small time steps in the inviscid and unforced case, whereas enstrophy is slightly decaying for the upwind flux used. The weak formulation of this finite-element method is given in the appendix . The method provides an alternative to classical numerical methods and is well suited for complex-shaped domains, mesh, and order ( h and p ) refinement. b. Linear

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Michael A. Spall

net vertical volume flux in interior regions of deep convection, although there is a vertical density flux ( Send and Marshall 1995 ). Consideration of the vorticity balance quickly reveals that to get any significant downwelling in the ocean interior, one must generate either large relative vorticity ( Send and Marshall 1995 ) or a large recirculating gyre that advects planetary vorticity ( Spall and Pickart 2001 ), neither of which is observed in the ocean. So, one must look elsewhere to find

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