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Madeleine M. Hamann, Matthew H. Alford, Andrew J. Lucas, Amy F. Waterhouse, and Gunnar Voet

geometry of the slope. Thorpe (2001) presents an analytical treatment of reflection from a rough slope, and finds that the shear in scattered waves scales with steepness and roughness of the slope. Observations by Nash et al. (2004) over a corrugated continental slope in the mid-Atlantic Bight show that the convergence of low-mode semidiurnal onshore energy flux is balanced by high-mode offshore flux; they postulate that enhanced near-bottom mixing offshore of the steep topography and enhanced

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Shuwen Tan, Larry J. Pratt, Dongliang Yuan, Xiang Li, Zheng Wang, Yao Li, Corry Corvianawatie, Dewi Surinati, Asep S. Budiman, and Ahmad Bayhaqi

order of 10 −4 –10 −3 m 2 s −1 ( van Aken et al. 1988 ; Ffield and Gordon, 1992 ; Hautala et al. 1996 ; van Aken et al. 2009 ). The spatial-averaged upwelling and mixing in the deep Banda Sea may be reevaluated by quantifying the volume and heat budgets of the basin, in which the fluxes of the entrainment downstream of the Lifamatola Passage are considered. Since the hydrographic data of the historical cruises are not publicly available, this study will utilize a set of full-depth conductivity

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Hemantha W. Wijesekera, Joel C. Wesson, David W. Wang, William J. Teague, and Z. R. Hallock

vertical stratification between 50 and 175 m. Fig . 13. (a) Divergence of horizontal currents based on box 2 survey, and (b) the estimated vertical velocity (m day −1 ) along with uncertainties of vertical velocity estimate based on standard deviation of ADCP currents. b. Microstructure observations Estimates of eddy viscosities, diffusivities, and turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum are computed using measurements of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rate ε (e.g., Gregg 1987 ; Osborn

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Frederick T. Mayer and Oliver B. Fringer

pressure p at the bottom [ z = h ( x )] and the analytical bathymetry h ( x ) to directly compute the form drag as (9) F form = ∫ 0 Lhill p [ x ,   z = h ⁡ ( x ) ]   ∂ h ∂ x   d x . A second measurement of the lee wave drag is provided by integrating the vertical momentum flux through a horizontal plane above the bathymetry. Unless otherwise noted in what follows, we choose this plane to be a height z t = 15 m above the crest of the hill, and define (10) F flux = ∫ 0 Lhill ρ 0 u ⁡ ( x ,   z t

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Gunnar Voet, Matthew H. Alford, Jennifer A. MacKinnon, and Jonathan D. Nash

transformation in the deep ocean ( Nikurashin and Ferrari 2013 ). Estimates for the global energy flux into lee waves vary between 0.2 TW ( Nikurashin and Ferrari 2011 ) and up to almost 0.5 TW ( Scott et al. 2011 ). Even though this is less than the 0.7–1.3 TW going globally into internal tides ( Egbert and Ray 2000 ; Munk and Wunsch 1998 ; Nycander 2005 ; Garrett and Kunze 2007 ; Falahat et al. 2014 ), numerical model studies show that lee waves can have a significant impact on the ocean stratification

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Hui Wu

that it is an analogous “initial condition” that takes the − y direction as time. It in fact refers to the inflow condition from the upshelf. Equation (14) is the no-normal flux condition at the coastal boundary given that the along-shelf wind stress is zero. Middleton and Thomson (1985) provided a highly skillful analytical solution for the coastal trapped solution of (11) with uniform slope s . However, for nonuniform s and the open ocean boundary condition the analytical solution is

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Magdalena Andres, Ruth C. Musgrave, Daniel L. Rudnick, Kristin L. Zeiden, Thomas Peacock, and Jae-Hun Park

underlying 1.1–3.0-day variability identified in the PIES measurements, wind stress reanalysis data across the Pacific from the equator to 39°N were downloaded spanning 2015 through the end of 2017 ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ; NCEP 2018 ). NCEP reanalysis daily averages of the zonal and meridional components of the momentum flux are available at 1.9° spatial resolution. From these data, the daily wind stress curl is calculated. On average, the curl in the tropical North Pacific is positive both during El Niño

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Eric Kunze and Ren-Chieh Lien

waves which break to produce turbulence in the water column. Quantitative comparisons find that measured dissipation is only a fraction of the estimated upward lee-wave energy-flux ( Bell 1975 ; Nikurashin and Ferrari 2010a ; Cusack et al. 2017 ). Within 500 meters above bottom (mab), Waterman et al. (2013) reported similar dissipation rates inside and outside regions of high predicted lee-wave generation. Elevated dissipation rates were found at 1000–1500 mab in regions of higher predicted lee

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Jody M. Klymak

Naveira Garabato et al. (2013) , the vertical integral of the momentum balance can be expressed as where all quantities have been divided by ρ 0 , so the units of all quantities are m 2 s −2 . The quantities A and B are vertically integrated lateral stress divergences and nonlinearities in the flow, is the depth-integrated mass flux vector, P is the depth integral of the pressure field (expressed as an anomaly from hydrostatic), and p b is the bottom pressure. H is the water depth, and

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Kristin L. Zeiden, Daniel L. Rudnick, and Jennifer A. MacKinnon

a time series of section-integrated, depth-average vorticity flux ( Fig. 17a ). There is a moderate peak in the vorticity flux along Line W in December of 2015 and substantial one in July 2017, both corresponding to periods of strong westward flow ( Fig. 17b ). Three shorter periods of eastward flow with similar intensities (January 2016, July 2016, January 2017) have no vorticity flux signature. These low-frequency, high Ro events are confined to the surface. Subthermocline |Ro| only briefly

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