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David M. Schultz, Derek S. Arndt, David J. Stensrud, and Jay W. Hanna

mechanism, buoyancy provides the energy for the circulations, and the vertical wind shear organizes the circulations into bands such that the shear is minimized in the cross-band direction (e.g., Kuo 1963 ; Asai 1970 ; Shirer 1986 ). Consequently, HCRs due to the thermal-instability mechanism often are observed in slightly unstable environments with some sensible heat flux from the surface (e.g., Table 1 in Atkinson and Zhang 1996 ; Weckworth et al. 1997 ). As environmental instability increases

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Aurora Borealis and City Lights

Henry W. Brandli

photos with the actual structure of the polar ionosphere. AFCRL's NKC-135flying laboratory probed the bottomside of the ionosphere as the ISIS satellite acquired topside soundingsand measured particle fluxes. By analyzing such dataand correlating them with the DMSP satellite photographs, it was found that the location of the auroralaffected D, E, and F layers could be determined, andthe occurrence of polar magnetic substorms observed.This technique pernfits real time observations of theextremely

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Eric A. Hendricks, Brian D. McNoldy, and Wayne H. Schubert

1. Introduction One of the most important unsolved problems in tropical meteorology today is tropical cyclone (TC) intensity variability, including rapid intensification. It is widely known that TC intensity change is caused by environmental, oceanic, and internal dynamical factors ( Wang and Wu 2004 ). One such important internal process is the dynamic instability of the eyewall potential vorticity (PV) annulus, its breakdown, and subsequent eddy flux of PV from the eyewall into the eye. This

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Bradley M. Muller, Christopher G. Herbster, and Frederick R. Mosher

Krueger (1962) ], lasting several hours. Such order-10-km eddies are important as they have been hypothesized to play a role in mixing at the coastal margin and have been implicated in cross-inversion fluxes of ozone and momentum ( Lester 1985 ). Furthermore, they could lead to unexpected wind shifts for sailors or pilots, and anecdotal reports suggest an environment of strong aircraft turbulence in the lee of islands that produce similar eddies (B. Baxter and P. Ruscher 2012, personal communication

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Andreas Dörnbrack, Sonja Gisinger, Michael C. Pitts, Lamont R. Poole, and Marion Maturilli

. Keckhut , 2015 : Seasonal variation of gravity wave activity at midlatitudes from 7 years of COSMIC GPS and Rayleigh lidar temperature observations . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 42 , 1251 – 1258 , doi: 10.1002/2014GL062891 . 10.1002/2014GL062891 Malardel , S. , and N. P. Wedi , 2016 : How does subgrid-scale parametrization influence nonlinear spectral energy fluxes in global NWP models? J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 121 , 5395 – 5410 , doi: 10.1002/2015JD023970 . 10.1002/2015JD023970 Manney , G

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