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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

. , Martner B. E. , White A. B. , and Kingsmill D. E. , 2005 : Wintertime nonbrightband rain in California and Oregon during CALJET and PACJET: Geographic, interannual and synoptic variability . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 133 , 1199 – 1223 , doi: 10.1175/MWR2919.1 . Neiman, P. J. , White A. B. , Ralph F. M. , Gottas D. J. , and Gutman S. I. , 2009 : A water vapour flux tool for precipitation forecasting . Water Manage. , 162 , 83 – 94 , doi:10.1680/wama.2009.162.2.83 . Panziera, L. , and

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

convention for such data. Dashed horizontal lines denote the range of altitudes of the “controlling layer” ( Neiman et al. 2002 ) over which horizontal winds are averaged to calculate the upslope wind speed. Color fill represents the signal-to-noise ratio of the backscattered energy observed by the radar. Warm colors (yellow, orange, and red) correspond to periods when precipitation was present. (b) Time series of IWV derived from a collocated GPS-Met site (red) and upslope IWV flux (blue). Horizontal

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

1. Introduction Large-aperture (near infrared) boundary layer scintillometers are becoming standard, commercially available, tools for estimating the turbulent sensible heat flux in the atmospheric surface layer over scales of hydrological and meteorological interest, from a few hundreds of meters to several kilometers (e.g., de Bruin et al. 1995 ; Chehbouni et al. 1999 ; Meijninger and de Bruin 2000 ; Cain et al. 2001 ; Lagouarde et al. 2002 ; Meijninger et al. 2002b ; Beyrich et al

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

concentrated fluxes of water vapor produce heavy orographic precipitation events along mountain slopes ( White et al. 2003 ; Ralph et al. 2004 , 2005 ; Neiman et al. 2004 , 2008 ), which can result in flooding and mudslides (e.g., White et al. 2003 , Ralph et al. 2005 ; Galewsky and Sobel 2005 ; Reeves and Lin 2008 ). In the U.S. Pacific Northwest, atmospheric rivers are locally referred to as the “Pineapple Express” ( Lackmann and Gyakum 1999 ; Colle and Mass 2000 ). Portland, Oregon, (at 0.5 km

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

. J. , and Gutman S. I. , 2009 : A water vapor flux tool for precipitation forecasting. J. Water Manage. , 162 , 83 – 94 . Olson, D. A. , Junker N. W. , and Korty B. , 1995 : Evaluation of 33 years of quantitative precipitation forecasting at the NMC. Wea. Forecasting , 10 , 498 – 511 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1995)010<0498:EOYOQP>2.0.CO;2 Pandey, G. R. , Cayan D. R. , and Georgakakos K. P. , 1999 : Precipitation structure in the Sierra Nevada of California during winter. J

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H. Leijnse, R. Uijlenhoet, C. Z. van de Beek, A. Overeem, T. Otto, C. M. H. Unal, Y. Dufournet, H. W. J. Russchenberg, J. Figueras i Ventura, H. Klein Baltink, and I. Holleman

located at approximately 25 km from the CESAR site. In addition to these instruments, CESAR has multiple lidars and radiometers, an extensive radiation measurement site [Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); see, e.g., Wang et al. 2009 ], and a 213-m-high tower in which profiles of several variables such as temperature and wind are measured. Aerosols are sampled at 60 m in this mast, and turbulent fluxes are measured on the site as well. Hydrological data (ditch discharges, groundwater levels

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

forcing from spatially variable rainfall inputs and monthly potential evaporation (PE) demand when transferring water between the surface, upper and lower soil zones, and channels. SAC-SMA utilizes a total of 16 parameters and six state variables characterizing the water contents and fluxes between the upper and lower soil zones. Eleven of the 16 parameters are spatially distributed with a priori values supplied by empirical relations to observed or inferred soil properties and depths ( Koren et al

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

) for the baiu front suggest that advection of an equivalent potential temperature that consists of a poleward moisture flux by the low-level jet and cold air advection by the upper-level jet are important to the active baiu rainband. In addition, Yoshikane et al. (2001) reported that the baiu rainband is quite sensitive to not only the low-level jet, but also the positions (and meandering) of the upper-level jet stream, which is significantly influenced by 200-hPa GH. The analyses are conducted

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Ali Behrangi, Bisher Imam, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, Timothy J. Bellerby, and George J. Huffman

semi-Lagrangian cloud model. The model estimates convective and stratiform precipitable water fluxes from GEO imagery and uses these to model bulk cloud liquid water content and associated rainfall rates as they evolve along streamlines. Model parameters are locally adjusted at MW overpasses and these adjustments are interpolated along streamlines between overpasses. State variables are sequentially updated using a Kalman filter at each MW overpass. The method has been tested under the conterminous

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