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Rong-Hua Zhang and Antonio J. Busalacchi

; Menkes et al. 2006 ). In particular, Kessler et al. (1998) illustrate that equatorial heat flux due to TIW mixing across the sharp SST front near 2°N is a first-order term in the low-frequency heat balance in the eastern tropical Pacific, as large as that from upwelling or the surface heat flux contribution. Also, TIWs can make a great contribution to momentum transport in the upper-equatorial current system. For example, Kessler et al. (2003) demonstrate that the magnitude of mean zonal momentum

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Jianhua Sun and Sixiong Zhao

, and along 119°E, representing the eastern part of front. The θ se and moisture flux were calculated by using NCEP–NCAR reanalysis data. Here, θ se is defined by lifting an air parcel upward along a moist pseudo-adiabatic trajectory, extracting all water vapor, and returning adiabatically to the surface ( Tao 1980 ), which can be calculated as θ se = T (1000/ P ) R d / c p exp( Lq / c p T ), where T , q , and L are the temperature, specific humidity, and latent heat, respectively; and

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Hamish A. Ramsay, Lance M. Leslie, and Jeffrey D. Kepert

formed and moved in conjunction with lower-tropospheric eyewall mesovortices, and accounted for a large portion of the total upward mass flux. Similarly, Braun and Wu (2007) in an investigation of the inner-core structure of Hurricane Erin (2001) concluded that the organization of eyewall vertical motion was influenced strongly by the strength of the vertical wind shear, with relatively weak shear (<5 m s −1 ) allowing mesovortices (and associated convective updrafts) to form on all sides of the

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