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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

and local civil servants to meaningfully implement this and other adaptation strategies. e. Timeline for future action Finally, this study followed the planning initiatives over time to determine whether recommendations were enacted and, if so, which types of recommendations were prioritized and how quickly they were implemented. It is important to note that all of the seven planning initiatives are in a state of flux; however, their progress to date has been detailed in Table 4 . King County is

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Jason A. Otkin, Tonya Haigh, Anthony Mucia, Martha C. Anderson, and Christopher Hain

et al. 2016 ). Information regarding vegetation biomass production and other properties can be obtained via direct measurement methods, such as harvesting, or indirect methods that use more easily observed quantities, such as vegetation height, to estimate the total plant biomass ( Bonham 1989 ). Direct measurements of ET, which is an important indicator of vegetation health, can be obtained during field projects or via flux tower networks such as AmeriFlux and FLUXNET ( Baldocchi et al. 2001

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Mikhail Varentsov, Natalia Shartova, Mikhail Grischenko, and Pavel Konstantinov

environmental data, including radiation fluxes, which should be measured or estimated, as well as metabolic heat and clothing insulation. This allows physiologically significant evaluation of thermal conditions ( Matzarakis et al. 1999 ) and considers the physical environment and human physiology, as well as associated psychological responses ( Vanos et al. 2010 ). As early as 1938, Büttner (1938) indicated that we need an energetic approach to interactions between the human body and the environment

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

conversion in Florida, by comparing pre-1900 and 1993 conditions, resulted in modifications of latent and sensible heat fluxes, and sea-breeze thermally induced circulation, resulting in the altering of spatial distributions of convective rainfall ( Marshall et al. 2004 ; Pielke et al. 1999 ). Additionally, Pielke et al. (2007) , using observational and modeling experiments, elucidated the impacts of such transformations on precipitation patterns at different scales and recommended further research to

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Lars Böcker and Sofia Thorsson

temperature [ T mrt(max) ] and physiological equivalent temperature [PET (max) ]. Mean radiant temperature ( T mrt ) is one of the most important meteorological variables governing the human energy balance and outdoor thermal comfort (heat load), especially during warm and sunny days ( Mayer and Höppe 1987 ). It is a sum of the exposure to all shortwave and longwave radiation fluxes (direct, diffuse, reflected, and emitted) in a given surrounding area. The value of T mrt is directly influenced by the

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Kristin VanderMolen and Alexandra Horangic

become an unreliable supplier, they go someplace else.” Farmers also let some crops go, primarily those not grown on contract, as one farmer explains, albeit to the detriment of supporting industries: “For example, grain storage facilities, they’ve taken a real pounding in the lean years because that’s where the flux in water consumption would take place, by people that are protecting their market share of other contracted commodities.” Already the Klamath Project recycles tailwater and operational

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Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska, Christopher A. Fiebrich, J. D. Carlson, Andrea D. Melvin, Albert J. Sutherland, Kevin A. Kloesel, Gary D. McManus, Bradley G. Illston, James E. Hocker, and Reuben Reyes

J. C. Pace , 2004 : Overview of Joint Urban 2003—An atmospheric dispersion study in Oklahoma City. Preprints, Symp. on Planning, Nowcasting, and Forecasting in the Urban Zone , Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., J7.1. [Available online at https://ams.confex.com/ams/84Annual/techprogram/paper_74349.htm .] Anderson , M. C. , J. R. Mecikalski , R. D. Torn , J. M. Norman , W. L. Kustas , and J. B. Basara , 2004 : Disaggregation of regional flux estimates using Landsat thermal and visible

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Jason Senkbeil, Jennifer Collins, and Jacob Reed

Irma. REFERENCES Agdas , D. , G. D. Webster , and F. J. Masters , 2012 : Wind speed perception and risk . PLOS ONE , 7 , e49944 , https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0049944 . 10.1371/journal.pone.0049944 Andersen , T. K. , D. E. Radcliffe , and J. M. Shepherd , 2013 : Quantifying surface energy fluxes in the vicinity of inland-tracking tropical cyclones . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 52 , 2797 – 2808 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-13-035.1 . 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-035.1 Baker , E

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Thomas W. Corringham and Daniel R. Cayan

. Mishra , K. M. Andreadis , E. P. Maurer , and D. P. Lettenmaier , 2013 : A long-term hydrologically based dataset of land surface fluxes and states for the conterminous United States: Update and extensions . J. Climate , 26 , 9384 – 9392 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00508.1 . 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00508.1 Mass , C. , A. Skalenakis , and M. Warner , 2011 : Extreme precipitation over the West Coast of North America: Is there a trend? J. Hydrometeor. , 12 , 310 – 318 , https

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Vikram M. Mehta, Cody L. Knutson, Norman J. Rosenberg, J. Rolf Olsen, Nicole A. Wall, Tonya K. Bernadt, and Michael J. Hayes

in water consumption decreased revenues, requiring the Lincoln Water System to cut its costs. Concerns about water quality also arose because of the possibility that large fluxes of pesticide in runoff water would infiltrate supply wells. Floodwaters also threatened to interrupt piped water supply. In nearby Omaha, the Platte River flooding threatened the well supply but did not curtail water use because water treatment plants were able to cope with the increased load of impurities in well water

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