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  • GFDL'S Coupled Model-3 (CM3): Dynamics, Physical Parameterizations, and Simulations x
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Stephen M. Griffies, Michael Winton, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Stephanie M. Downes, Riccardo Farneti, Anand Gnanadesikan, William J. Hurlin, Hyun-Chul Lee, Zhi Liang, Jaime B. Palter, Bonita L. Samuels, Andrew T. Wittenberg, Bruce L. Wyman, Jianjun Yin, and Niki Zadeh

used for the CM2.1 simulations, we switched to a smaller constant (reducing the net solar fluxes reaching the earth by about 1 W m −2 ), as recommended for the AR5 assessment based on new solar irradiance measurements ( Kopp et al. 2005 ). CM3 was then run for roughly 300 years with the new solar constant prior to initializing the ensemble of historical simulations. The net effect is that CM3, having run for 800 years during the spinup phase, is closer to its equilibrium state than CM2.1 upon

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Jean-Christophe Golaz, Marc Salzmann, Leo J. Donner, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, and Ming Zhao

radiative fluxes. Values shown are for untuned experiments (S1u, S2u, and S3u) and based on a 1-yr simulation. Fig . 2. Impact of retuning on cloud drop number concentration distributions. Box plots show 1st, 25th, median, 75th, and 99th percentiles. S1u, S2u, S3u refer to untuned experiments. S1, S2, and S3 have been retuned to have the same net radiation as the REF configuration. It is interesting to note that these formulation changes alone have a radiative impact with a magnitude comparable to the

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Leo J. Donner, Bruce L. Wyman, Richard S. Hemler, Larry W. Horowitz, Yi Ming, Ming Zhao, Jean-Christophe Golaz, Paul Ginoux, S.-J. Lin, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, John Austin, Ghassan Alaka, William F. Cooke, Thomas L. Delworth, Stuart M. Freidenreich, C. T. Gordon, Stephen M. Griffies, Isaac M. Held, William J. Hurlin, Stephen A. Klein, Thomas R. Knutson, Amy R. Langenhorst, Hyun-Chul Lee, Yanluan Lin, Brian I. Magi, Sergey L. Malyshev, P. C. D. Milly, Vaishali Naik, Mary J. Nath, Robert Pincus, Jeffrey J. Ploshay, V. Ramaswamy, Charles J. Seman, Elena Shevliakova, Joseph J. Sirutis, William F. Stern, Ronald J. Stouffer, R. John Wilson, Michael Winton, Andrew T. Wittenberg, and Fanrong Zeng

. First, the flux-form semi-Lagrangian extension ( Lin and Rood 1996 ) needed to stabilize the (large time step) transport processes near the poles is no longer needed with the use of the cubed-sphere grid. Second, and related to the first, the polar Fourier filtering required for the stabilization of fast waves is also no longer needed. Both modifications led to greatly improved computation and communication load balancing, enabling the efficient use of 2D domain decomposition on each of the six

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John Austin, Larry W. Horowitz, M. Daniel Schwarzkopf, R. John Wilson, and Hiram Levy II

experiments for the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). In this paper, we present results from the ensemble runs for the historical atmosphere, in which all forcings (greenhouse gas and halocarbon concentrations, solar fluxes, and volcanic aerosols) were specified from observations. Five ensemble members are presented, where the initial conditions were taken 50 years apart from a long 1860 control run of the same model. There were no statistically significant stratospheric trends in the 1860 control for

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