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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, and Robert A. Tomas

1. Introduction Recent studies have shown that air–sea flux variability associated with oceanic small-scale features such as mesoscale eddies has a different character from that associated with broader basin scales. Much attention has been paid to the air–sea momentum flux variability ( Xie et al. 1998 ; Chelton et al. 2001 ; Small et al. 2008 ; Schneider and Qiu 2015 ) but less to the air–sea turbulent heat flux variability. Air passing over the relatively strong gradients of sea surface

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Shusaku Sugimoto

1. Introduction In the extratropical North Pacific, vigorous heat related to the turbulent heat flux (THF; the sum of the sensible and latent heat fluxes) is released from the ocean to the atmosphere in winter ( Fig. 1a ). The THF release in winter is predominantly controlled by surface wind, which has a negative local correlation with sea surface temperature (SST) ( Davis 1976 ; Frankignoul 1985 ; Iwasaka et al. 1987 ; Wallace and Jiang 1987 ; Lau and Nath 1994 ; Nakamura et al. 1997

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Young-Oh Kwon and Terrence M. Joyce

ocean hands over most of the heat to the atmosphere. The ocean-to-atmosphere heat transfer is concentrated near the western boundary current (WBC) region [i.e., the Gulf Stream (GS) and Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE)], which is signified by the largest ocean-to-atmosphere heat fluxes in the globe in the annual-mean sense as well as for the interannual variability. Another important contrast between the ocean and atmosphere is the very different role of mean circulations and eddies. In the ocean

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Fumiaki Ogawa and Thomas Spengler

1. Introduction The crucial role of air–sea heat exchange in the global energy cycle demands a physical understanding and sound interpretation of the distribution of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes. Because the climatological-mean fluxes are well described using time-mean fields in the bulk flux formulas ( Simmonds and Dix 1989 ), many studies employ stationary and linear thinking to describe the response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and fronts in the low latitudes

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Yoshi N. Sasaki and Chisato Umeda

. Many studies have reported the SST trend of the East China Sea (e.g., Belkin 2009 ; Tang et al. 2009 ; Wu et al. 2012 ; Bao and Ren 2014 ). Nevertheless, studies examining the mechanism of the SST rise in the East China Sea are limited. Zhang et al. (2010) performed a heat budget analysis using a reanalysis product from 1958 to 2010 and demonstrated qualitatively that the warming around the Kuroshio corresponded to an increase in the anomalous ocean advection and damping by surface heat flux

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Xiaohui Ma, Ping Chang, R. Saravanan, Dexing Wu, Xiaopei Lin, Lixin Wu, and Xiuquan Wan

thermodynamic feedbacks between surface heat fluxes and ocean mixed layer temperature act to reduce thermal damping, enhancing low-frequency variability of the atmosphere, and 2) a nonlinear mechanism where an eddy-mediated process links SST forcing to storm track activity. The former can be considered as a passive coupling between the atmosphere and ocean and can be understood as an extension of Hasselmann climate model ( Hasselmann 1976 ) in the framework of a coupled atmospheric energy balance model and

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R. Justin Small, Frank O. Bryan, Stuart P. Bishop, Sarah Larson, and Robert A. Tomas

stochastic BB98 coupled system by Wu et al. (2006) , Zhang (2017) , and Bishop et al. (2017) . As explained by Zhang (2017) , it is important to include both ocean damping terms and ocean noise in the stochastic framework, and Bishop et al. (2017) show that this gives rise to the observed positive covariability of ocean temperature and air–sea heat flux (out of ocean) in ocean-eddying regions, such as the western boundary currents and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). These are regions where

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Adèle Révelard, Claude Frankignoul, Nathalie Sennéchael, Young-Oh Kwon, and Bo Qiu

dominated by geostrophic advection, with a clear signature in SST. Sugimoto and Hanawa (2011) showed that SST changes are primarily responsible for turbulent heat flux variations. Because of the strong ocean-to-atmosphere fluxes of heat and moisture, the KOE is a region of large cyclogenesis, as major storm tracks are organized along or just downstream of the main oceanic frontal zones ( Hoskins and Hodges 2002 ; Bengtsson et al. 2006 ). Nakamura et al. (2004) and Taguchi et al. (2009) have

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Bo Qiu

region, turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from the ocean surface are enhanced into a cool dry continental air mass carried by the prevailing monsoonal northerlies (e.g., Kwon et al. 2010 ), especially along the KE because of locally augmented air–sea temperature differences (e.g., Taguchi et al. 2009 ; Tanimoto et al. 2011 ). It has been argued that sharp meridional contrasts in SHF across SST fronts act to restore near-surface baroclinicity efficiently, contributing to

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Takafumi Miyasaka, Kazuaki Nishii, and Youichi Tanimoto

sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) from the ocean are enhanced in the cold season, because of large air–sea difference in temperature and humidity under dry, cold continental air advected by the prevailing monsoonal northerlies (e.g., Taguchi et al. 2009 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ). Despite a huge amount of heat release into the atmosphere, SST remains relatively high in winter along the KE owing to its advective effect. It has been argued that surface baroclinicity is restored through

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