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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

; Whitaker et al. 1988 ; Schultz 2001 ). Booth et al. (2012) examined the roles of the WCB in a cyclone’s growth and investigated how surface moisture and heat fluxes influence the development of extratropical cyclones in the Gulf Stream region. They postulated that the surface moisture and heat supply under the warm sector produces increased latent heating in the cyclones via the WCB, thereby strengthening the extratropical cyclogenesis. Another view is the active role of the CCB in the rapid

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

1986—in terms of atmospheric circulation fields and surface heat fluxes from the ocean. They revealed that surface energy fluxes from the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension under the updraft region of the cyclones were better maintained for the explosive cyclone than for the nonexplosive cyclone during its development stages. Takayabu et al. (1996) also pointed out that the energy supply from the Kuroshio/Kuroshio Extension is an important factor in the rapid intensification of extratropical cyclones

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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

Sea, on both climatological and synoptic time scales. This relationship implies that surface heat fluxes in the East China Sea affect BFZ seasonal migration. In addition, Kuwano-Yoshida et al. (2013) demonstrated by a suite of numerical experiments using global climate models that surface evaporation from the warm ocean is important for maintenance of the quasi-stationary BFZ. The Kuroshio, one of the most prominent ocean currents in the world, flows along the shelf edge in the East China Sea (e

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

studies. Fig . 1. The 5-day running means of (a) the AO index as defined by Ogi et al. (2004) , (b) the WP index, (c) SAT anomalies over Japan from AMeDAS station data (°C), (d) air temperature anomalies (°C) as a function of time and pressure level, (e) the heat flux anomaly index (W m −2 ), and (f) SST anomalies (°C). In (d)–(f) areal averages over the Sea of Japan (36.0°–43.5°N, 130.0°–140.0°E; inside the orange box in Fig. 4 ) are shown. Daily anomalies were calculated relative to daily climatic

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