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  • Climate Implications of Frontal Scale Air–Sea Interaction x
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Hyodae Seo, Arthur J. Miller, and Joel R. Norris

flux, stability of the MABL, and downward turbulent momentum transfer. The coherent wind response to mesoscale SST has been broadly observed in the global oceans (e.g., Park and Cornillon 2002 ; Xie 2004 ; Chelton and Xie 2010 ; O’Neill et al. 2010 , 2012 ; Frenger et al. 2013 ; among many others). Using this positive correlation between T e and W e , Chelton et al. (2004) developed an empirical relation that the spatial derivative of wind (vorticity or divergence) is linearly

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Takuya Nakanowatari, Humio Mitsudera, Tatsuo Motoi, Ichiro Ishikawa, Kay I. Ohshima, and Masaaki Wakatsuchi

transported effectively to low latitudes through the NPIW pathway ( Sarmiento et al. 2004 ). It has also been reported that iron, an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton, originates from the OSIW and may lead to abundant biological productivity in the North Pacific ( Nishioka et al. 2007 ). Furthermore, long-term changes in the water mass are likely to be crucial for the carbon cycle and pertinent to global warming issues. The net anthropogenic CO 2 flux from the Okhotsk Sea to the Pacific is

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Ryu Saiki and Humio Mitsudera

-band formation have been discussed since the 1980s. McPhee (1979 , 1982 , 1983) suggested that an ice edge band may be separated from the top of the ice pack by the reduction of drag between sea ice and ocean owing to intense buoyancy flux by melting when the ice edge moves into warm water. Wadhams (1983) suggested that inhomogeneity of the wave radiation stress in the fetch-limited open waters of various spacing would produce ice bands. The wave radiation stress is concentrated on floes at the

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Peter Gaube, Dudley B. Chelton, Roger M. Samelson, Michael G. Schlax, and Larry W. O’Neill

is based on the bulk flux formulation from the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment, version 3.0 (COARE 3.0; Fairall et al. 2003 ). Surface stresses computed by the COARE 3.0 algorithm are about 15% larger than those computed by the Large et al. (1994) algorithm (see Fig. B2 of Risien and Chelton 2008 ), but the conclusions of this study are not significantly dependent on the choice of C D . The surface stress τ , stress components τ x and τ y , and vector winds were calculated

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