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Young-Oh Kwon, Michael A. Alexander, Nicholas A. Bond, Claude Frankignoul, Hisashi Nakamura, Bo Qiu, and Lu Anne Thompson

’s impacts on clouds ( Bond and Cronin 2008 ). Within the subpolar gyre SST remains relatively low even in summer, acting to increase static stability in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The ocean cools the warm moist air advected from the south, leading to the formation of low-level stratus and fog within the PBL. A particularly sharp transition of this sort occurs on the northern sides of the KE and OE SST fronts ( Tokinaga et al. 2009 ). The prevalence of clouds over the subpolar gyre reduces solar

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Shoshiro Minobe, Masato Miyashita, Akira Kuwano-Yoshida, Hiroki Tokinaga, and Shang-Ping Xie

subtropical high ( Wang et al. 2007 ). Thus, the summertime rainband over the Florida Current and the western Gulf Stream proper is associated with basinwide atmospheric circulation. 5. Cloud and lightning The low-level (1100–680 hPa) cloud fraction estimated from AIRS/AMSU is generally large north of the Gulf Stream and small south of it ( Figs. 8a and 8b ), consistent with widely known, frequent fog and haze formation over the slope waters (e.g., Sweet et al. 1981 ). Although the cloud fraction is

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Kathryn A. Kelly, R. Justin Small, R. M. Samelson, Bo Qiu, Terrence M. Joyce, Young-Oh Kwon, and Meghan F. Cronin

( Fig. 6 ). This may be accompanied by changes in cloud height ( Holt and Raman 1992 ) and formation of secondary circulations ( Wai and Stage 1989 ). The effect of the ocean front on the atmospheric boundary layer can vary by season. For example, instability in wintertime northwesterly winds crossing the KE creates 2-km-high boundary layers over warm meanders and stable conditions over cold water ( Tokinaga et al. 2006 ). In summer, warm advection from the subtropics across the KE can lead to fog

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