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Bharat Rastogi, A. Park Williams, Douglas T. Fischer, Sam F. Iacobellis, Kathryn McEachern, Leila Carvalho, Charles Jones, Sara A. Baguskas, and Christopher J. Still

1. Introduction Low-lying stratocumulus clouds and fog have been known to modify biophysical and ecological properties in a variety of ecosystems in differing climates. These include montane cloud forests in the tropics, which are dependent on frequent and prolonged immersion in the cloud layer ( Still et al. 1999 ), as well as in temperate regions such as the Appalachian Mountains in northeastern America, where the shift from low elevation deciduous to high elevation coniferous forests is

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Robert Paul d'Entremont and Gary B. Gustafson

TIROS cloud algorithm capitalizes on the multispectral characteristics of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to more accurately detect low cloud, fog, and thin cirrus with a minimal reliance on supporting background data. Combined analyses of DMSP and TIROS polar-orbiting data are useful for characterizing stationary or persistent cloud systems (e.g., nighttime fog, marine stratus, stratiform cloud associated with slowly moving fronts). However, their accuracies age quickly when

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Nádia Gilma Beserra de Lima and Emerson Galvani

internal precipitation for the mangrove, Barra do Ribeira, Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil. The period of analysis for determining the interception of precipitation is shown in Table 2 . A total precipitation of 1299.6 mm was recorded during the analyzed period. There were 145 rain events, which exhibited a high level of variation with values between 1.0 and 140.2 mm. A lower limit of 1 mm was adopted because events lower than this value can be associated with the occurrence of fog, which represents air

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A. Park Williams, Joel Michaelsen, Steven W. Leavitt, and Christopher J. Still

lasiocarpa ) to climate in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, USA. Global Change Biol. 1 : 213 – 230 . Fischer , D. T. , C. J. Still , and A. P. Williams , 2009 . Significance of summer fog and overcast for drought stress and ecological functioning of coastal California endemic plant species. J. Biogeography 36 : 783

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Daniel M. Brown, Gerhard W. Reuter, and Thomas K. Flesch

– 194 , doi:10.3137/AO1118.2010 . Changnon , S. A. , Jr. , R. G. Semonin , and F. A. Huff , 1976 : A hypothesis for urban rainfall anomalies . J. Appl. Meteor. , 15 , 544 – 560 . Charlton , R. B. , and C. Park , 1984 : Observations of industrial fog, cloud, and precipitation on very cold days . Atmos.–Ocean , 22 , 106 – 121 . de Bruijn , T. J. W. , 2010 : Estimated life cycle GHG and energy use for oil-sands-derived crudes versus conventional light crude using GHGenius

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Y. Govender, E. Cuevas, L. D. S. Sternberg, and M. R. Jury

water . Water Resour. Res. , 43 , W12411 , doi:10.1029/2007WR006011 . Scholl , M. A. , J. B. Shanley , J. P. Zegarra , and T. B. Coplen , 2009 : The stable isotope amount effect: New insights from NEXRAD echo tops, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico . Water Res. , 45 , W12407 , doi:10.1029/2008WR007515 . Scholl , M. A. , W. Eugster , and R. Burkard , 2010 : Understanding the role of fog in forest hydrology: Stable isotopes as tools for determining input and partitioning of

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Patricia M. Lawston, Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Brian Hanson, and Kristi Arsensault

Climatology Network-Daily (GHCN-Daily), version 3.24. NOAA National Climatic Data Center, accessed 27 June 2018, . 10.7289/V5D21VHZ Nakanishi , M. , and H. Niino , 2006 : An improved Mellor–Yamada Level-3 model: Its numerical stability and application to a regional prediction of advection fog . Bound.-Layer Meteor. , 119 , 397 – 407 , . 10.1007/s10546-005-9030-8 NASS , 2014 : 2012 census of agriculture: Farm and ranch

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Christopher Potter, Steven Klooster, and Charles Krauter

is largely due to the persistent ground fog and marine layer presence throughout the year in different parts of California. From these 8-km monthly FAS–NDVI datasets, we applied empirical algorithms described by Potter et al. ( Potter et al., 1993 ) to compute second-level model drivers for the fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) and leaf area index (LAI). 2.2. Land cover type The land area within the state of California covers approximately 400,000 km 2 . For land

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Ansar Khan, Samiran Khorat, Rupali Khatun, Quang-Van Doan, U. S. Nair, and Dev Niyogi

. , 1987 : Statistical Methods for Environmental Pollution Monitoring . John Wiley and Sons, 320 pp. Gray , E. , S. Gilardoni , D. Baldocchi , B. C. McDonald , M. C. Facchini , and A. H. Goldstein , 2019 : Impact of air pollution controls on radiation fog frequency in the Central Valley of California . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 124 , 5889 – 5905 , . Hadeed , S. J. , M. K. O’Rourke , J. L. Burgess , R. B. Harris , and R. A. Canales

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Norbert Anselm, Oscar Rojas, Grischa Brokamp, and Brigitta Schütt

contributions of fog and drizzle can add up to 7% of the precipitation input in the Cordillera Oriental ( Cárdenas et al. 2017 ), the density curve of Lagunitas would become even more arching and most likely more symmetrical. This agrees with Jaramillo-Robledo and Chaves-Córdoba (2000) who report that the eastern Andean peaks show a different (unimodal) distribution of rainfall. The majority of the air masses reaching the Sabana de Bogotá comes from east and northeast. These winds have an annual share of

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