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Allen H. Schooley

(Schooley, 1973).4. Experiment C Almost by chance some statistical oceanographicdata, relating surface temperature to cloud cover andto wind speed, were obtained in February 1974. Dr.Runke, Head of the Atmospheric Physics Branch atNRL, was Chief Scientist of an expedition planned todo fog research. They put to sea from Panama on the10th, circled the Galapagos Is]ands, and ended theexperiment at Ecuador on the 24th. Although this areaMA-1977 NOTES AND

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N. J. Kerry, R. J. Burt, N. M. Lane, and M. T. Bagg

ships were equipped with Neil BrownMk IIIb conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) systems which could be "yo-yoed" by automatic winches.2. Observationsa. Meteorological conditions On 7 June a weak ridge of high pressure extendedacross the trials site with northeasterly winds ~ 8 ms-~ and sea state 2. By evening the winds had veeredsoutheasterly and then decreased to light airs with areduction in sea state. This period of calm, withwarm moist air gave rise to fog which persisted intothe following

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S. C. Ling

has a samplingcross-sectional area of 0.30 cm2 and a volume of 0.006cm3. The output signal of the detector is proportionalto the square of the droplet diameter. A square-rootoperation is applied to the signal to provide a signalthat is proportional to the size 'of the water droplet.The system was designed to measure droplets coveringa range of.10 um to 420 t~m in diameter, with a bandbroadening error of less than 2% and a counting errorof less than 1% for dense sea fog. The speed of thedroplet

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Cleveland G. Holladay and James J. O'Brien

made from 35 successful SST*.mappingflights. During the 62-day period of the project, flightscould not be made on 27 days due to either an im-penetrable ceiling along the coastal mountain rangeor inshore fog near the coast. Table 1 contains theCOHO flight summary. This collection of analyzeddata represents the largest accumulation of almost-daily SST data in a coastal upwelling region or otheroceanic region to date. [For a more in-depth studyof the COHO Project, see O'Brien (1974a, b, c).]Fhing at

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S. C. Ling and T. W. Kao

IIo 50 ~ ioo t5o ' FI~. 7. As in Fig. 6 except Tw-T0=2-C. I0the data obtained by Craig (1946, p. 31), Roll (1965, ~p. 231) and Bunker et al. (1949).Conditions where the sea is cooler than the airoccur mainly near coastal areas. Cold sea is the causefor 95% of heavy sea fog (Roll, 1965, p. 357; Kraus,1972, p. 188). This state is characterized by a low,uniformly mixed, moist layer which is topped by aninversion layer

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Marc P. Buckley and Fabrice Veron

straightener) and seeded (fog) at the location of zero fetch. (b) A 3D sketch of the wind–wave imaging system. The airflow velocity measurement system is on the right-hand side. It is a combination of PIV and PIV SD. Both make use of the PIV laser sheet for illumination. The PIV uses direct laser light reflection on the fog particles; the PIV SD uses fluorescence of the rhodamine 6G present in the water. The wave field measurement system is on the left and consists of an LFV spatial wave profile imager and

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S. A. Thorpe

assumption islacking, although it appears valid in sediment flow(Newberger and Caldwell, 1981) which has similarphysics, and is a common assumption in other relatedsituations (e.g., in radiation fog; see Brown, 1980). Itis worth noting that a description of turbulence bymeans of eddy diffusion coefficients is often inappropriate or, at best, dubious. It is however in steady, orquasi steady, boundary layers that they can be usedwith greatest confidence and success (see Pasquill,1974). Analytical results

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Kristina B. Katsaros

ice while 18 Aprilwas a stormy day, and no growth of ice could be observed at all. Observations on 18 April were made onthe downwind side of an open lead which was so wide,(i.e., of the order of kilometers) that the other sidecould not be discerned through the steam fog. Foamand bubbles within the field of view may have contaminated the measurement of/XT. However, both Tband To were subject to this, and the only effect seemsto have been to make the record more noisy. On 14 April, the

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Robert R. Dickson, Paul A. Gurbutt, and V. Narayana Pillai

all of thesefeatures conform with recently published theoryconcerning the enhancement of upwelling alongindented continental slopes. Although cloudless conditions in Biscay are by nomeans common, these three features of the coldwater band do appear consistently on other cloudfree images from this area, The infrared imagefor 1443 GMT 14 May 1979 (Fig. 3a) shows asimilar alignment of the cooling over the continentalslope, although in this case sea fog obscures thePorcupine Seabight. Once again

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R. K. Reed and D. Halpern

andHalpern, 1974a, b) from 1359 on 1 August to 1359on 2 August. During this period there was rio loss ofheat from the ocean by evaporation 'because the airvapor pressure was always greater than the watervapor pressure. Any possible gain of heat by condensation from the atmosphere has been neglectedsince fog was present during only 4 h of the series.The gain of sensible heat by the ocean was computedAmtm1975 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCE

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