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John M. Peters, Christopher J. Nowotarski, and Gretchen L. Mullendore

^ and −∇ H p point in the same direction, such that t ^ is orthogonal to ∇ H p and D H V / Dt vanishes. In purely unbalanced flow (i.e., flow that is accelerating directly with the pressure gradient force), t ^ and −∇ H p point in the same direction and the radius of curvature R vanishes. Thus, the angle ϕ = cos − 1 ⁡ [ − ⁡ ( ∇ H p ⋅ n ^ / | ∇ H p | ) ] between n ^ and −∇ H p measures the degree to which air parcel motions are cyclostrophically balanced, with ϕ = 0 implying an

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