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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

, were felt elsewhere in the basin. Alberto affected western Cuba, and Ernesto produced heavy rainfall in portions of Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic, with five deaths resulting from Ernesto’s rains in Haiti. Florence brought hurricane conditions to Bermuda, and after losing tropical characteristics also brought hurricane-force winds to portions of Newfoundland. Gordon was the first hurricane to affect the Azores since 1991. The lack of hurricane landfalls on the North American continent in

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John A. Augustine and Kenneth W. Howard

be unnecessary. In 1985, 59 MCCs were identified; this total is approximately 20to 40 more than in any year since 1978, when these annual summaries began. The monthly distribution andseasonal progression of MCCs in 1985 are similar to those of prior years. The enhanced MCC activity in June1985 is associated with a persistent favorable quasi-geostrophic forcing during that period. Significant MCCresearch conducted in 1985 included a prototype large-scale field program (O.-K. PRE-STORM) in May

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Edward N. Rappaport

.) The following section describes the 1997 cyclones. The meteorological analyses and poststorm “best tracks” (e.g., Fig. 1 ) were based primarily on analyses of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and polar-orbiting weather satellite imagery using the Dvorak (1984) technique and reconnaissance aircraft reports from the “Hurricane Hunters” of the United States Air Force Reserve. These data were supplemented by observations from surface and upper-air sites, and weather radars

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Michael J. Brennan, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle Mainelli, and Todd B. Kimberlain

geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellites, aircraft reconnaissance, weather radar, buoys, and conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations ( Dvorak 1984 ; Hebert and Poteat 1975 ; Hawkins et al. 2001 ; Brueske and Velden 2003 ; Demuth et al. 2006 ; Brennan et al. 2009 ). In 2007, during all NOAA WP-3D aircraft missions and a subset of the U.S. Air Force Reserve C-130 aircraft flights, surface winds were remotely estimated using the Stepped-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

within a few hundred kilometers of the U.S. coastline) weather radar observations. The vast majority of satellite information during the 1996 season came from the geostationary satellite GOES-8. Position and intensity estimates using satellite data are obtained by using the Dvorak (1984) technique. Most of the aerial reconnaissance was accomplished by the “Hurricane Hunters” of the U.S. Air Force Reserve Unit. Reconnaissance aircraft are routinely deployed into Atlantic tropical cyclones that

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, John L. Guiney, and Richard J. Pasch

–99 average of 62% of the named tropical cyclones that originated from tropical waves. So, there are normally more systems originating from upper-tropospheric cold lows or along frontal zones than was observed during 1999. 2. Description of tropical storms and hurricanes a. Tropical Storm Arlene, 11–18 June Arlene remained at sea. The storm passed about 100 n mi east of Bermuda, but tropical storm force winds remained offshore. On 8 June, water vapor imagery first showed the circulation of an upper low

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, James L. Franklin, Miles B. Lawrence, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

eastern North Pacific basin. Tropical Cyclone intensity estimates can be obtained from the imagery using the Dvorak (1984) technique. Such estimates, or “classifications,” are provided every 6 h by the Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) of the Tropical Prediction Center, the Satellite Analysis Branch of the National Environmental, Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS), and the Air Force Weather Agency. Geostationary satellites are also the source for wind vectors derived from

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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

(1975) intensity estimation techniques. These estimates (“classifications”) are provided by the Tropical Analysis and Forecast Branch (TAFB) of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/National Weather Service’s (NOAA/NWS) Tropical Prediction Center (TPC), the NOAA/Satellite Analysis Branch in Washington, D.C., and the Air Force Weather Agency in Omaha, Nebraska. For systems threatening land, in situ observations are generally available from aircraft reconnaissance flights

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

by the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (“Hurricane Hunters”) of the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aircraft Operations Center (AOC). During reconnaissance flights, minimum sea level pressures are either measured by dropsondes released at the circulation center or extrapolated hydrostatically from flight level. Surface (or very near surface) winds in the eyewall or maximum wind band are often measured directly using GPS

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

strengthening. Over the next few days the vertical wind shear took its toll. The low-level center of Alex became fully exposed south of the remaining deep convection on 1 August. Alex turned toward the northwest later that day and continued to weaken gradually. It weakened to a depression by midday on 2 August. Later that afternoon, data from an Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) “Hurricane Hunter” reconnaissance aircraft showed that the system no longer had a closed low-level circulation, and Alex had

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