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Robert Wood, Kuan-Ting O, Christopher S. Bretherton, Johannes Mohrmann, Bruce. A. Albrecht, Paquita Zuidema, Virendra Ghate, Chris Schwartz, Ed Eloranta, Susanne Glienke, Raymond A. Shaw, Jacob Fugal, and Patrick Minnis

concentration N d , which scales as dA / dN d = A (1 − A )/3 N d ( Platnick and Twomey 1994 ) and thus is only about one-third lower for A = 0.2 compared with A = 0.5. On the other hand, the extremely low N d in UCL clouds implies a very high albedo susceptibility (Twomey effect). Marine low clouds shoulder a large fraction of the global indirect aerosol forcing in climate models (e.g., Kooperman et al. 2012 ; Carslaw et al. 2013 ; Lee et al. 2016 ), so it is important to understand whether

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Kuan-Ting O, Robert Wood, and Christopher S. Bretherton

(CSET) project (AGS-1445813). We thank Marcia Baker and Jørgen Jensen for helpful discussion. REFERENCES Ackerman , A. S. , M. P. Kirkpatrick , D. E. Stevens , and O. B. Toon , 2004 : The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing . Nature , 432 , 1014 – 1017 , https://doi.org/10.1038/nature03174 . 10.1038/nature03174 Albrecht , B. A. , 1989 : Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness . Science , 245 , 1227 – 1230 , https

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