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Sergio F. Abarca, Michael T. Montgomery, Scott A. Braun, and Jason Dunion

described above, of (storm relative) radial and tangential velocities, relative humidity, and the following quantities: radial vorticity flux −uζ a [where is the azimuthally averaged absolute vertical vorticity, r is the radial distance, υ is the azimuthally averaged tangential velocity, and f is the Coriolis parameter at the latitude of the measurement], equivalent potential temperature θ e , as defined by the Bolton formula ( Bolton 1980 ), and the agradient force per unit mass , as

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Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

Rogers et al. 2013b , 2015 ), consist primarily of TCs already undergoing intensification, after the intensifying secondary circulation has had time to develop deep convection, while the satellite studies have a large number of cases prior to the onset of intensification, when low-level forcing mechanisms are likely important in the development of shallow/moderate convection ( Tao and Jiang 2015 ). It may also result from differences in how the timing of the onset of intensification is defined

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Stephen R. Guimond

centers. Additional data used in this analysis come from flight level observations collected by U.S. Air Force (USAF) C-130 reconnaissance aircraft, which flew in between the flight times of the WB-57 and P3. Vigh et al. (2016) recently developed the FLIGHT+ dataset, which gathers all NOAA and USAF flight-level data dating back to 1997. In this dataset, flight tracks are segmented into radial legs relative to the storm center determined by the method of Willoughby and Chelmow (1982) . The flight

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

longwave absorption within the stratocumulus cloud deck at the top of the boundary layer that is enhanced by the AM effect (figures now shown). Above the SAL, cooling occurs between 500 and 300 hPa and is particularly pronounced near the upper ITCZ region north of 12°N. The AR effect ( Fig. 10c ) is the major driving force of the change in radiative heating profiles below 400 hPa, while both the AM ( Fig. 10a ) and AR effects are important to the changes in atmospheric heating above 400 hPa. Although

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William A. Komaromi and James D. Doyle

1. Introduction Until recently, a single ER-2 flight over Hurricane Erin (2001) provided the only direct dropsonde observations through the full depth of the tropical cyclone (TC) outflow layer ( Halverson et al. 2006 ). Conventional aircraft observations of TCs, such as by the U.S. Air Force C-130s and the NOAA P-3s, tend to be limited to the middle to lower levels of the cyclone with a typical flight level of 700 hPa ( Aberson et al. 2006 ). Synoptic observations provided by the NOAA G-IV are

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

consistent with those previously hypothesized in satellite and in situ radar composite studies. Despite this agreement, the thermodynamic evolution must be examined in other cases for conclusions to be considered robust. While the NOAA and U.S. Air Force (USAF) WC-130J aircraft contribute to the vast majority of dropsonde data available in TCs, because those aircraft typically fly at and below 700 hPa, replicating analyses from this study would likely only be possible for a small sample of cases. This

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