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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

1. Introduction Because of the smaller heat capacity of soil compared to water, the amplitudes of the diurnal cycle of surface total available turbulent (latent and sensible) heat flux and skin temperature tend to be greater over land than ocean. This likely amplifies lower-atmospheric heat energy in the afternoon, which often increases buoyant force, as measured by convective available potential energy (CAPE; Pielke 2001 ). As a result, continental precipitation is most frequently observed

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Hamed Ashouri, Phu Nguyen, Andrea Thorstensen, Kuo-lin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Dan Braithwaite

with desirable spatial and temporal coverages. Satellite products with their global coverage are very well suited for this purpose. With the advancement in remote sensing science and technology, high-resolution data and information about the earth’s surface characteristics (e.g., topography, soil types, and land use) and hydrometeorological forcings (e.g., precipitation, temperature, and evapotranspiration) have been made available globally. Particularly, remote sensing of precipitation—one of the

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

1. Introduction Accumulating surface snowfall is generated from cloud structures with varying vertical extent and underlying formation mechanisms. For instance, midlatitude winter cyclones with complex dynamical forcing produce snowfall from incipient cloud structures typically extending into the mid- to upper troposphere. Common examples of snowfall events associated with deeper clouds in the continental North American region include U.S. East Coast winter storms (e.g., Kocin and Uccellini

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

study area, the representativeness of gauge measurements to spatial precipitation variability introduces error in area-average estimates and should be noted as demonstrated in Nikolopoulos et al. (2015) . To evaluate the error propagation in flood simulations, satellite precipitation datasets were used to force a gauge-calibrated hydrologic model to simulate runoff for 16 cascade basins (areas ranging from 255 to 6967 km 2 ) and comparing them to the gauge-driven simulated hydrographs for a range

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Abebe Sine Gebregiorgis, Pierre-Emmanuel Kirstetter, Yang E. Hong, Nicholas J. Carr, Jonathan J. Gourley, Walt Petersen, and Yaoyao Zheng

1. Introduction Precipitation is a vital component of the water cycle, connecting Earth’s surface and atmosphere. It is also a major input for many hydrological models, as it is the driving force behind all hydrologic processes on Earth’s surface. Accurate information regarding the frequency and quantity of precipitation enables a better understanding of Earth’s water cycle. In the modern era, spaceborne platforms have provided insights on the character of global-scale precipitation

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