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Derek J. Posselt and Tomislava Vukicevic

through a cloud system following the mean flow. The model consists of a single-column version of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model ( Tao and Simpson 1993 ; Tao et al. 2003 ). As in the fully three-dimensional version of the GCE, base-state vertical profiles of potential temperature and moisture are fixed and the model predicts perturbations on these base-state profiles. In our idealized framework, clouds are generated by forcing the model

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Malaquias Peña, Zoltan Toth, and Mozheng Wei

given in Lorenz (2006) , the model exhibits regime changes similar to those observed in the barotropic vorticity equation models in an elongated rectangular domain. Specifically, the model’s governing equations are where n = 1, 2, … , N , N = 21 is the dimension of the model state; F = 5.1 is the forcing term; and t is time. The variations of x n are intended to simulate the behavior of some atmospheric quantity. The definition of x n is extended to all values of n

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Marc Bocquet

understood on physical grounds ( Bocquet 2005a ). However, the solution is no longer impacted by the observations except in the vicinity of the observation sites. In this context, it is therefore mandatory to make an educated choice on a (if not the) proper scale of the representation. Building on Bocquet (2005a) , general results will be obtained on this issue in section 2 . d. Greenhouse gas fluxes estimation: An optimal representation problem The driving force of global warming is very likely to be

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