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Robert Conrick and Clifford F. Mass

mean vertical profiles of cloud water, rainwater, and snow mixing ratios averaged by storm sector. Postfrontal sectors generally had profiles with the smallest mixing ratios of all sectors. Considering that warm-sector environments are often associated with strong synoptic forcing and large IVT (e.g., Zhu and Newell 1994 , Zagrodnik et al. 2018 ), it was not unexpected that those environments had the greatest mixing ratios among sectors. Compared to GMI, cloud water profiles during pre- and

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Annareli Morales, Hugh Morrison, and Derek J. Posselt

condition. A positive definite advection scheme is used, and a Rayleigh damper with damping coefficient of 0.0003 s −2 is applied to the top 4 km to prevent reflection of vertically propagating gravity waves. Although interactions of radiation with the mountain surface can result in the forcing of mesoscale mountain circulations, for example, mountain-valley winds, our focus is on the interaction of microphysics and dynamics. Thus, radiative transfer and surface heat flux parameterizations are

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, and Robert A. Houze Jr.

precipitation rate in the small-drop regime at Prairie Creek is modestly but not significantly higher than Fishery and Bishop Field ( Fig. 4a ) and significantly higher than Graves Creek and Wynoochee ( Figs. 4b,c,d ) at a 99% confidence level. The absence of large drops and the weak low-level flow suggest that this orographic enhancement pattern has weak synoptic forcing and is predominantly the consequence of condensation and rapid fallout of small drops near the front of the Olympic Mountain barrier

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Robert Conrick, Clifford F. Mass, and Qi Zhong

enhancement . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 3599 – 3623 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3555.1 . 10.1175/JAS3555.1 Houze , R. A. Jr. , and Coauthors , 2017 : The Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 98 , 2167 – 2188 , https://doi.org/10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0182.1 . 10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0182.1 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations

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Joseph P. Zagrodnik, Lynn A. McMurdie, Robert A. Houze Jr., and Simone Tanelli

static stability profiles in Fig. 5 both confirm stable stratification during these three prefrontal periods and veering low-level flow in the 1–3-km layer, conditions that were conducive to blocked or deflected low-level flow. High values of integrated vapor transport (IVT; 500–600 kg m −1 s −1 ) and 20–30 m s −1 flow at 925 hPa ( Table 3 ) indicate strong synoptic-scale forcing. The greatest variability between cases is seen in the melting-level height, as the lower 500-hPa heights and more

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