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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

and E have been created during that time. c. Different types of RWPs and their propagation There are different types of RWPs associated with different temporal and spatial scales, different types of forcing, and specific properties of the background flow. Sometimes an RWP is little more than an individual trough or ridge ( Sanders 1988 ); sometimes an RWP may span a substantial part of the globe ( Branstator 2002 ). Some RWPs propagate along great circles, while others are ducted in the zonal

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

cyclone constitutes an external forcing with persistent structure to the midlatitude wave. This idea is in marked contrast to traditional initial-value studies of baroclinic development, in which the initial perturbations are embedded in the midlatitude flow and are thus not an external forcing (e.g., Simmons and Hoskins 1979 ; Hakim 2000 ). 2) Evolution of the upstream trough ET may also influence the upstream trough, which may experience modifications of its shape, meridional extension, and

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