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Sean Stelten and William A. Gallus Jr.

challenging. Although previous studies had shown that quantitative precipitation forecast skill increased as the strength of the large-scale forcing increased ( Jankov and Gallus 2004 ; Szoke et al. 2004 ), Duda and Gallus (2013) found that CI forecast skill in 3-km horizontal grid spacing versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model did not follow such trends. Wilson and Roberts (2006) , however, found that CI tended to be better predicted in a 10-km version of the Rapid Update Cycle

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Jonathan E. Thielen and William A. Gallus Jr.

). Squitieri and Gallus (2016a) noted that, based on differences in synoptic background conditions, LLJs can be divided into two categories: Type C, with cyclonic upper-level flow and coupling with an upper-level jet streak, and Type A, with anticyclonic upper-level flow and no coupling. In Squitieri and Gallus (2016a) , Type-C LLJs are considered the cases with strong synoptic forcing since the coupling with upper-level flow allows for the greatest large-scale vertical motion, whereas Type-A LLJs are

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Aaron Johnson, Xuguang Wang, and Samuel Degelia

W. A. Gallus Jr. , 2013 : The impact of large-scale forcing on skill of simulated convective initiation and upscale evolution with convection-allowing grid spacings in the WRF . Wea. Forecasting , 28 , 994 – 1018 , doi: 10.1175/WAF-D-13-00005.1 . 10.1175/WAF-D-13-00005.1 French , A. J. , and M. D. Parker , 2010 : The response of simulated nocturnal convective systems to a developing low-level jet . J. Atmos. Sci. , 67 , 3384 – 3408 , doi: 10.1175/2010JAS3329.1 . 10.1175/2010JAS3329

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Aaron Johnson and Xuguang Wang

.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<1897:PAESIS>2.0.CO;2 Hamill , T. M. , 1999 : Hypothesis tests for evaluating numerical precipitation forecasts . Wea. Forecasting , 14 , 155 – 167 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0155:HTFENP>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0155:HTFENP>2.0.CO;2 Heideman , K. F. , and J. M. Fritsch , 1988 : Forcing mechanisms and other characteristics of significant summertime precipitation . Wea. Forecasting , 3 , 115 – 130 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0434(1988)003<0115:FMAOCO>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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