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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

and wave modes in 3D rotating stratified flows: Random large-scale forcing . Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. , 102 , 437 – 455 , https://doi.org/10.1080/03091920801915318 . 10.1080/03091920801915318 Sukhatme , J. , A. J. Majda , and L. M. Smith , 2012 : Two-dimensional moist stratified turbulence and the emergence of vertically sheared horizontal flows . Phys. Fluids , 24 , 036602 , https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3694805 . 10.1063/1.3694805 Sun , Y. Q. , R. Rotunno , and F. Zhang

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

rainfall events in the tropical western Pacific Ocean initiated in close proximity to mesoscale SST gradients. The onset of rainfall preferentially occurred adjacent to local warm patches, in close proximity to minima of the negative Laplacian of SST. Using formulas derived to estimate the magnitude of convergence induced by the SST field, the forcing by mesoscale SST gradients was an order of magnitude larger than the environmental background convergence, thus driving the regional excitation of

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

time (1200 LT bin), convergence over the western Luzon mountain location (i.e., near 121°E) commences in all three runs, but is particularly noticeable and stronger in the true and doubled topography runs compared to the flat run (cf. Figs. 8 – 10 , { u , w } vectors). The elevated warmer potential temperature values in the doubled versus flat topography run during the 1200 LT bin likely enhance the upslope valley-to-mountain circulation via direct thermal forcing (e.g., Houze 2012 ; Kirshbaum

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D. A. Cherian, E. L. Shroyer, H. W. Wijesekera, and J. N. Moum

the SMC which threads a pathway between the Sri Lanka Dome to the north and the anticyclone to the south ( Vinayachandran et al. 1999 ; Wijesekera et al. 2016 ). During the NE monsoon, the mean circulation in southern Bay reverses and the Northeast Monsoon Current flows westward with a weaker signal in EKE ( Figs. 2a,b ). Fig . 2. Seasonal cycle of forcing and circulation in the Bay of Bengal for 2014. White dots mark mooring locations used in the study. (top) Seasonal mean geostrophic eddy

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

km to the right of the track) and BD10 (near the track) employ temperature and salinity initial conditions constructed from the mooring data interpolated in the vertical. Model vertical resolution is 0.25 m, and the time step is 1 h. Surface forcing is based on observed hourly incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, and turbulent fluxes are estimated from hourly moored measurements of air temperature, surface pressure, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind using the COARE 3

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

surface water was typically advected 3 km farther per day than water at 30 m. The shear that occurs between the diurnal jet and the mixed layer (0.03 s −1 ; Sutherland et al. 2016 ; Bogdanoff 2017 ) is comparable to that found in estuarine flows (0.05 s −1 ; Stacey and Pond 1997 ), at the base of internal solitary waves (0.05 s −1 ; Moum et al. 2003 ), and in the sheared layer above the equatorial undercurrent (0.02 s −1 ; Smyth et al. 2013 ). Under weak forcing (wind < 2 m s −1 ), clear sky, and

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

-scale movement of strong cloud convection and precipitation, which directly alters the surface circulation of the BoB, as studied by Grunseich et al. (2011) using altimeter observations. MJOs force equatorial Kelvin waves that propagate northward along the eastern coastline ( Cheng et al. 2013 ). These Kelvin waves can alter the mixed layer variability and directly change the rate of air–sea heat flux in the BoB ( Oliver and Thompson 2010 ). The relationships between the MJO and surface fluxes over the BoB

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

greater contrast between land and sea due to a difference in thermal inertia, resulting in a strong sea-breeze circulation and more vigorous convection. Surface insolation is strongly reduced by phase 6, providing less forcing for a strong diurnal cycle. Fig . 11. ERA5 (a) daily mean surface downwelling shortwave radiation anomalies by BSISO phase relative to the May–October mean and (b) BSISO anomalies of the diurnal amplitude of surface zonal wind relative to May–October composite diurnal cycle of

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI1457.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI1457.1 Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models. J. Geophys. Res. , 113 , D13103, https://doi.org/ 10.1029/2008JD009944 . 10.1029/2008JD009944 Jakob , C. , and A. P. Siebesma , 2003 : A new subcloud model for mass-flux convection schemes: Influence on triggering

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