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  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
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Rostislav Kouznetsov, Priit Tisler, Timo Palo, and Timo Vihma

1. Introduction Katabatic winds are airflows that occur above a cold sloped surface. They are driven by gravity that causes colder and more dense air masses to move downhill. As velocity increases, the Coriolis force declines the flow from the downhill direction. As was done in Vihma et al. (2011) , we define the katabatic wind as a downslope wind initially generated by surface cooling. The katabatic winds occur near a surface in the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and have

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Qing Yang, Larry K. Berg, Mikhail Pekour, Jerome D. Fast, Rob K. Newsom, Mark Stoelinga, and Catherine Finley

-hourly ramp definition (definition 1). Ramps occur most frequently in spring with 21–24 up-ramp events per month as compared with only 11 and 13 per month in January and February, respectively. The down-ramp frequencies follow a similar pattern, with a slightly higher (by 2.6 per month) frequency. The larger ramp frequency in March–June when compared with winter likely results from ramps associated with non-synoptic-scale forcing, such as lower-atmosphere or local-surface thermal heterogeneity ( Kang

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