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U. Schumann, B. Mayer, K. Graf, and H. Mannstein

functions ( Yang et al. 2003 ). With increasing age, the shape and size of contrail particles may approach that of natural cirrus. All these properties make simple radiation estimates difficult. Several studies computed the changes in net downward irradiance (flux) or radiative forcing (RF) caused by additional thin cirrus and contrails ( Stephens and Webster 1981 ; Meerkötter et al. 1999 ; Chen et al. 2000 ; Myhre et al. 2009 ; Rap et al. 2010 ; Frömming et al. 2011 ; Markowicz and Witek 2011

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David A. Rahn and Thomas R. Parish

-dimensional context for aircraft observations at a particular point in space and time and are used here as a means to compare with the observational data on the structure and forcing of the CJ. Emphasis for the airborne study is placed on the direct measurement of the horizontal pressure gradient force (PGF) near the top of the MABL by the University of Wyoming King Air (UWKA) research aircraft. The fundamental idea behind measuring the PGF is to fly an instrumented aircraft along an isobaric surface. Heights are

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Simone Lolli, James R. Campbell, Jasper R. Lewis, Yu Gu, Jared W. Marquis, Boon Ning Chew, Soo-Chin Liew, Santo V. Salinas, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Motivation Campbell et al. (2016) isolate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) net cirrus cloud radiative forcing (CRF) properties for a continuous 1-yr, single-layer cloud dataset developed from NASA ground-based Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET; ) ( Welton et al. 2001 ; Campbell et al. 2002 ; Lolli et al. 2013 ) observations collected at Greenbelt, Maryland [38.99°N, 76.84°W; 50 m above mean sea level (MSL)]. They estimate that cirrus clouds exert an absolute net

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Krzysztof M. Markowicz and Marcin L. Witek

cloudiness” ( Sausen et al. 2005 ). The climate effect in terms of the radiative forcing of contrail clouds is highly uncertain because of a limited number of observed statistics of contrail parameters (e.g., Palikonda et al. 2005 ) and difficulties with the parameterization of contrails in general circulation models ( Ponater et al. 2002 ; Rap et al. 2010 ; Kärcher et al. (2010) . The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “Aviation and Global Atmosphere” special report ( Penner et al. 1999

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Hyun-Ju Ahn, Soon-Ung Park, and Lim-Seok Chang

aerosols ( Miller and Tegen 1998 ; Tegen and Fung 1994 , 1995 ; Tegen et al. 1996 ; Li et al. 1996 ; Andreas 1996 ) on the climate. On a global scale, the radiative forcing by dust generally causes a reduction in the atmospheric dust load ( Perlwitz et al. 2001 ). Their experiments also showed that dust radiative forcing can lead to significant changes both in the soil dust cycle and the climate state. Miller et al. (2004) interpreted this reduction as an interaction between dust radiative

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James R. Campbell, Erica K. Dolinar, Simone Lolli, Gilberto J. Fochesatto, Yu Gu, Jasper R. Lewis, Jared W. Marquis, Theodore M. McHardy, David R. Ryglicki, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Introduction Campbell et al. (2016 , hereinafter C16 ) and Lolli et al. (2017 , hereinafter L17 ) describe multiyear ground-based NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET, 532 nm; Welton et al. 2001 ; Campbell et al. 2002 ) measurements of cirrus clouds and corresponding estimates of their net daytime top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing (CRF; i.e., the difference in TOA solar and infrared radiation budgets estimated in the presence of cloud versus that of the corresponding

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James R. Campbell, Simone Lolli, Jasper R. Lewis, Yu Gu, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Background Cirrus clouds have long been recognized for their unique contribution to climate ( Liou 1986 ). In particular, whereas all clouds warm the underlying atmosphere and surface at night [positive top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing], cirrus is the only genus that can readily warm or cool (negative TOA forcing; effectively all other clouds cool the daytime atmosphere) the daytime atmosphere and surface depending on the cirrus’s varying physical characteristics [i.e., cloud height

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M. H. Norwood, A. E. Cariffe, and V. E. Olszewski

DECEMBV. R1966 NORWOOD, CARIFFE AND OLSZEWSKI 887Drag Force Solid State Anemometer and VaneM. H. No~woo~), A. E. CA~r~*E AND V. E. OLSZEWSKINational Engineering Science Company, ~Pasadena, Calif.(Manuscript received 21 January 1966, in revised form 12 July 1966)ABSTRACT The design and performance of a two-component drag force anemometer is discussed. The device utilizessemiconductor strain gages to produce

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Woogyung Kim, Jhoon Kim, Sang Seo Park, and Hi-Ku Cho

in the UV forcing factors and trends in the UV irradiance caused by these forcing factors are also evaluated with the time series of fractional deviation of daily UV irradiance from the reference values obtained by a superposition of sinusoids fitted to the daily data in this study. Changes in the amount of UV radiation reaching the earth’s surface depend mainly on changes in the UV forcing factors of ozone, atmospheric turbidity (aerosols), and clouds, except for geometric factors such as

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Edward Strobach, Lynn C. Sparling, Scott Daniel Rabenhorst, and Belay Demoz

simulations to gain some insight into regional wind forcing mechanisms that may not be represented in low-resolution reanalysis climatologies (e.g., Cuxart et al. 2000 ; Poulos et al. 2002 ). The focus of this study is in the mid-Atlantic region where there are few offshore observations, and where the variability of the terrain can lead to complex low-level wind regimes both on- and offshore. Surface features such as the Appalachian Mountains, the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, and the morphology of the

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