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  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
  • Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) x
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Philip T. Bergmaier and Bart Geerts

the 7–9 January event is given in section 3 . Section 4 presents the airborne radar observations and a comparison of these observations with corresponding model cross sections. A model analysis of the mesoscale forcing and inland penetration of the band is given in section 5 . The results of the study are discussed and summarized in sections 6 and 7 , respectively. 2. Data and methods a. Airborne measurements A significant portion of this study focuses on airborne radar data from the

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David A. R. Kristovich, Luke Bard, Leslie Stoecker, and Bart Geerts

of convective vertical motions have been found for other cases in which air moved over a relatively warm surface. Nonlocal entrainment would be expected to increase as a result of nonlocal surface thermal forcing (i.e., intensified vertical motions enhancing mixing at the PBL top; e.g., Stull 1988 ; Young and Sikora 2003 ; etc.), consistent with the observed deepening of the OPBL. In principle, a gravity wave train could be generated by surface changes upwind of the shore (such as over Lake

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Scott M. Steiger, Tyler Kranz, and Theodore W. Letcher

during OWLeS because of a very deep boundary layer. Although synoptic forcing largely caused the deep boundary layer, we speculate that the depth of the boundary layer may have been increased by an upwind elevated mixed layer (possibly formed by the deep boundary layer mixing over the upper Great Lakes). A comparison between upwind and downwind soundings taken around Lake Ontario indicates that this lake-modified boundary layer traversed the stable surface layer over the Canadian landmass between

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