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M. Tugrul Yilmaz, Paul Houser, Roshan Shrestha, and Valentine G. Anantharaj

1. Introduction Precipitation and radiation are the most important input forcings driving land surface models (LSM), whereas land cover, soil properties, and topography are secondary effects that influence the partitioning of these forcings between canopy interception, soil layers, runoff, and atmosphere ( Wei et al. 2008 ). Knowledge of temporal and spatial distributions of precipitation is crucial for producing realistic land surface simulations that enhance our understanding of hydrologic

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

evaporation (sublimation minus deposition), Q represents snow loss or gain due to the horizontal flux of snow, and R represents the loss of snow from meltwater. The term P corresponds to snowfall from synoptic or mesoscale systems, orographic forcing, or clear sky precipitation (diamond dust) ( Bromwich 1988 ). Net evaporation is defined as snow depth loss from surface sublimation or snow depth gain from surface deposition of hoar frost. Hoar frost, in general, is not a substantial contributor to

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Hilawe Semunegus, Wesley Berg, John J. Bates, Kenneth R. Knapp, and Christian Kummerow

by the U.S. Navy’s Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) and the U.S. Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA). All data referenced in this paper are from the seven channels that were measured from SSM/I instruments flown on F-8 , F-10 , F-11 , F-13 , F-14 , and F-15 satellites: the 19-GHz vertical and horizontally polarized (19V and 19H, respectively), the 22-GHz vertically polarized (22V), the 37-GHz vertically and horizontally polarized (37V and 37H), and the 85-GHz

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Long S. Chiu and Roongroj Chokngamwong

1. Introduction Oceanic precipitation is a major component of the hydrological cycle and climate processes. The oceans cover about 70% of the earth’s surface where most of the freshwater exchange occurs. The major driving force for atmospheric circulations also comes from the latent heat release associated with precipitation processes. Global precipitation is linked to the surface energy budget through evaporation, which occurs mostly over oceans. The understanding of trends and variability of

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Mark S. Kulie and Ralf Bennartz

, J. Cappelen , and A. Stephens , 2006 : Observed and modeled Greenland ice sheet snow accumulation, 1958–2003, and links with regional climate forcing. J. Climate , 19 , 344 – 358 . Heymsfield , A. J. , A. Bansemer , C. Schmitt , C. Twohy , and M. R. Poellot , 2004 : Effective ice particle densities derived from aircraft data. J. Atmos. Sci. , 61 , 982 – 1003 . Hinzman , L. D. , and Coauthors , 2005 : Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern

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J. J. Shi, W-K. Tao, T. Matsui, R. Cifelli, A. Hou, S. Lang, A. Tokay, N-Y. Wang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Skofronick-Jackson, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen

computed from similarity theory ( Monin and Obukhov 1954 ). The “Noah” (from NCEP–Oregon State University–U.S. Air Force–National Weather Service Office of Hydrologic Development) land surface model was used, which is based on Chen and Dudhia (2001) . It is a four-layer soil temperature and moisture model with canopy moisture and snow cover prediction. It provides sensible and latent heat fluxes to the boundary layer scheme. The soil temperature and moisture were also initialized from NCEP GFS

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Axel Andersson, Christian Klepp, Karsten Fennig, Stephan Bakan, Hartmut Grassl, and Jörg Schulz

over the ocean in gale force winds. J. Phys. Oceanogr. , 10 , 709 – 726 . Smith , S. D. , 1988 : Coefficients for sea surface wind stress, heat flux, and wind profiles as a function of wind speed and temperature. J. Geophys. Res. , 93 , (C12) . 15467 – 15472 . Swift , C. T. , L. S. Fedor , and R. O. Ramseier , 1985 : An algorithm to measure sea ice concentration with microwave radiometers. J. Geophys. Res. , 90 , 1087 – 1099 . Tournadre , J. , and Y. Quilfen , 2003

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