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Thomas R. Parish, Matthew D. Burkhart, and Alfred R. Rodi

1. Introduction The most fundamental forcing term in the equation of motion that governs atmospheric dynamics is the pressure gradient force. In particular, it is the horizontal component of the pressure gradient force that is critical to the understanding of atmospheric motion. Typically, the horizontal component of the pressure gradient force (PGF) is four orders of magnitude smaller than the vertical component, yet is responsible for the forcing of nearly all atmospheric motions. Knowledge

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Matthew J. Hoffman, Takemasa Miyoshi, Thomas W. N. Haine, Kayo Ide, Christopher W. Brown, and Raghu Murtugudde

hydrodynamics lead to further errors in the predictions of water quality and biological parameters. One way to improve model performance is through continued model development and increases in grid resolution and the accuracy of forcing fields and parameterization schemes. Another way, which we apply here, is to integrate data from existing observing networks into the model through data assimilation, thereby making the model results more realistic. Oceanographic data assimilation has been performed for many

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Avishai Ben-David, Alan P. Force, Francis M. D'Amico, and Silvio L. Emery

520 $OURNAL O,F ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY VOLUME9The Effect of a CO2 Laser Pulse Shape on the Accuracy of DIAL Measurements AVISHAI BEN-DAVIDScience and Technology Corporation, Edgewood, Maryland ALAN P. FORCE, FRANCIS M. D'AMICO, AND SILVIO L. EMERYU.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and Engineering Center. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (Manuscript received 5 March 1991

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Ann M. Fridlind and Andrew S. Ackerman

1. Introduction The interactions of aerosols with clouds represent a leading source of uncertainty in quantifying anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate globally since preindustrial times ( Solomon et al. 2007 ). Clouds are also reported to constitute the largest source of uncertainty in climate sensitivity to radiative forcing in current coupled ocean–atmosphere climate models ( Soden and Held 2006 ). In the tropics, differences in the predicted sensitivity of marine boundary layer clouds

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Yves Quilfen, Doug Vandemark, Bertrand Chapron, Hui Feng, and Joe Sienkiewicz

data. A well-defined altimeter NRCS decrease with increasing QuikSCAT wind speed is observed up to hurricane force winds, but matchup data are lacking above this level. The dashed curve in Fig. 1 represents the Young (1993) model. It is clear this linear Geosat model lies near the data but slightly underestimates the NRCS saturation at highest winds. The proposed new high-wind altimeter model function branch, also shown in Fig. 1 , is again a linear model relating NRCS to 10-m wind speeds

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I. Hoteit, B. Cornuelle, V. Thierry, and D. Stammer

-Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (TOGA-TAO) buoy network ( McPhaden et al. 1998 ), the availability of subsurface data is now also becoming more complete. However, a detailed description of the tropical Pacific dynamics still requires the support of model simulations driven by surface fluxes of heat, momentum, and freshwater. Complete spatial and temporal coverage of surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater is available from atmospheric analysis centers. However, their forcing fields are prone to random

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Lucy M. Bricheno, Albert Soret, Judith Wolf, Oriol Jorba, and Jose Maria Baldasano

1. Introduction Close to the coast the interaction between wind, waves, and tides becomes most complex but also most critical. Storms are particularly important at the coast as these events can lead to high waves, storm surges, inundation, and erosion in populated areas. The motivation for this paper is to explore ways of improving coastal surge and wave forecasting by improving the atmospheric forcing. Here, we specifically examine the issue of atmospheric model resolution. Storm surges are

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Daosheng Wang, Haidong Pan, Lin Mu, Xianqing Lv, Bing Yan, and Hua Yang

1. Introduction Elevated coastal sea levels (SLs; see appendix ) are dangerous for nearby cities, while depressed SLs can render navigation of coastal bays and harbors difficult and hazardous ( Tilburg and Garvine 2004 ). The SL variations at the coast result from multiscale processes, with the superposition of global mean SL, regional SL, and local SL changes, as shown in Melet et al. (2016 , 2018) . SL changes due to meteorological forcing, including sea surface atmospheric pressure (AP

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T. M. Georges, J. A. Harlan, L. R. Meyer, and R. G. Peer

VOL. 10, NO. 4 JOURNAL OF ATMOSPHERIC AND OCEANIC TECHNOLOGY AUGUST 1993Tracking Hurricane Claudette with the U.S. Air Force Over-the-Horizon Radar T. M. GEORGES NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory, Boulder, Colorado J. A. HARLAN CIRES, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado L. R. MEYER General Electric Company, Bangor, Maine

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Guillermo M. Díaz Méndez, Merrick C. Haller, Britt Raubenheimer, Steve Elgar, and David A. Honegger

methodology for identifying wave breaking, estimating wave breaking dissipation, and calculating wave height transformation are presented in section 3 . Results are discussed, including comparisons of remote sensing with in situ observations in section 4 , followed by a brief discussion of accuracy and sources of error. In addition, the remotely sensed wave height transformation results are used to estimate radiation-stress forcing, and compared with estimates from in situ measurements. Conclusions are

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