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Kazutoshi Sato, Atsuyoshi Manda, Qoosaku Moteki, Kensuke K. Komatsu, Koto Ogata, Hatsumi Nishikawa, Miki Oshika, Yuriko Otomi, Shiori Kunoki, Hisao Kanehara, Takashi Aoshima, Kenichi Shimizu, Jun Uchida, Masako Shimoda, Mitsuharu Yagi, Shoshiro Minobe, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

the global and mesoscale analyses. We used a blended daily satellite SST dataset from the JMA called the Merged Satellite and In Situ Data Global Daily SST (MGDSST) ( Kurihara et al. 2006 ) for analyzing SST fields during the campaign. The MGDSST dataset was also used for the bottom boundary condition of the mesoscale model. To assess thermodynamic forcing and oceanic influence on the atmosphere around the BFZ, we estimated apparent heat sources and moisture sinks using output of the mesoscale

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Hidetaka Hirata, Ryuichi Kawamura, Masaya Kato, and Taro Shinoda

, whereas the contribution of UL forcing is minor. As for the cyclone center, the forcing from the IL, which is associated with latent heat release, accounts for about half of the total perturbation field. Fig . 12. (a) Maps of 900-hPa geopotential height anomalies (shaded) induced by the PV anomalies in the surface layer (SL) and the sum of 900-hPa geopotential height anomalies (contours) induced by the individual PV anomalies in the SL, the interior layer (IL), and the upper layer (UL) at 1500 UTC 14

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