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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

models are tools for generating streamflow predictions that explicitly represent landscape properties and meteorological forcing and their associated spatiotemporal changes ( Smith et al. 2004 ; Wood et al. 2011 ). Because of the sparse nature of meteorological data in the NAM region, we explored the use of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004 ) as forcing for the spatially distributed model. NLDAS fields were compared, and in some cases adjusted, with

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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

complimentary, coregistered (in time and space) information on the state of the land surface (e.g., soil moisture, soil temperature, vegetation fraction, land cover type, leaf area index, and albedo), atmospheric profile (e.g., temperature, humidity, and precipitation), and surface radiation forcing, at spatial resolutions ranging from 250 m (MODIS) to 50 km (AIRS/AMSU). Aqua is set in a sun-synchronous orbit with equatorial crossing times of ~1330 and ~0130 local time (LT) on ascending and descending

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

(uncoupled) for an approximately 4-yr period prior to the start time of the 2006 and 2007 case studies to create equilibrated, or “spun-up,” land surface states for initialization of LIS–WRF. Forcing data from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) project were used to drive each of the offline LSM runs. Using these resultant spun-up surface fields as initial surface conditions for the 2006/07 case studies, NU-WRF simulations were then performed over a single, high-resolution domain

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

( DeAngelis et al. 2010 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ). DeAngelis et al. (2010) proposed that locations downwind of irrigated areas experience increases in CAPE without increases in CIN because while additional moisture is advected in from irrigated regions, temperature decreases do not occur in the absence of latent cooling. When synoptic conditions are favorable for the forcing of convection, an increase in CAPE downwind of irrigated locations enhance convective precipitation. Because a large percentage of

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Enrique R. Vivoni

landscape patterns. The period contains the available ground data in the basin and a nearby eddy covariance (EC) site ( Vivoni et al. 2007 , 2010 ). b. Hydrologic modeling with remotely sensed vegetation parameters Remote sensing data are used to vary vegetation parameters of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)–based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) ( Ivanov et al. 2004 ). The model has a spatially explicit treatment of terrain, soils, vegetation, and atmospheric forcing. The

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

vertical levels, 4 soil layers (to a depth of 2 m), and a 30-s time step, with the exception of 2007 which used a 25-s time step for both control and irrigation simulations because of instabilities with the forcing dataset during that year. Simulations were completed from 1 April to 1 October. The Noah land surface model was modified to include irrigation (described in section 2b ). No cumulus parameter was employed because sensitivity runs of WRF using a cumulus parameter (explained in HS2012

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Xubin Zeng, Zhuo Wang, and Aihui Wang

days at Gaize (when all forcing and validation data are consistent in our data evaluations) are used for model evaluations in Figs. 1 – 4 . Fig . 2. As in Fig. 1 except using CLM. Fig . 3. (a) Observed and (CLM and Noah) simulated net radiative flux ( R net ) and (b) SH flux over Desert Rock averaged from 3 to 31 Jul 2007. (c),(d) The corresponding results averaged from 18 days during 3–31 May 1998 over Gaize. Model sensitivity tests are explained in Table 1 and section 3b . Fig . 4. The

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