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Thomas Engel, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Gregor Pante, and Jan Bliefernicht

–trough system, the former being located over Guinea and Sierra Leone. To the west of the trough, the 0600 UTC analysis shows enhanced lower-tropospheric wind shear of 10–20 m s −1 over northern Burkina Faso and westernmost Niger, but because of the early morning hours, CAPE is lower than 1000 J kg −1 ( Fig. 4b ). From this, we conclude that the convective invigoration must be related to synoptic forcing from the AEW that provided strong convergence and record amounts of moisture. Canonical squall lines

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Susan Stillman, Xubin Zeng, and Michael G. Bosilovich

1. Introduction Precipitation is the driving force of the terrestrial water cycle and is implicative of the general circulation and is therefore monitored rigorously using a variety of instruments and models. It is measured with high temporal resolution with the greatest accuracy using rain gauges. However, they only represent precipitation at sporadically distributed points, and even the best measurements have uncertainty. Wind has a nonlinear effect on precipitation measurement uncertainties

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