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Rui M. Ponte and Sergey V. Vinogradov

) found that their two-layer model solutions were consistently better than the one-layer solutions. The improvement stemmed from differences in the large-scale structure of the two solutions, but how these changes were related to baroclinic internal tide generation was not clear. Forcing by P a , being stochastic and broadband in both wavenumber and frequency, samples the full range of possible baroclinic effects in the response to loading. The inclusion of P a forcing in realistic numerical models

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Lee-Lueng Fu

1. Introduction The highly periodic monsoon wind cycle of the equatorial Indian Ocean makes this ocean basin an ideal place to study the dynamics of an ocean’s response to wind forcing. The seminal paper by Lighthill (1969) set the theoretical framework for studying the ocean’s response to the onset of monsoon wind. Cane and Sarachik (1981) addressed the subject of periodic forcing and discussed a wide range of solutions to the theoretical problem. Cane and Moore (1981) derived analytical

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Ichiro Fukumori, Dimitris Menemenlis, and Tong Lee

, respectively. Observed and modeled sea level fluctuations are analyzed in section 4 . The basin-wide sea level oscillation is first identified in section 4a . The effects of buoyancy forcing and winds are analyzed in sections 4b and 4c . In section 4d , a simple analytical model is put forth that describes the basin-wide fluctuation. The relationship between wind- and pressure-driven variability is examined in section 4e . A summary and conclusions are presented in section 5 . 2. Sea level

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Dimitris Menemenlis, Ichiro Fukumori, and Tong Lee

, suggest that winds in the vicinity of Gibraltar Strait may be a fifth major cause of Atlantic to Mediterranean sea level difference. García-Lafuente et al. (2002a) describe a meteorological forcing event that interrupts inflow in the Strait of Gibraltar. They estimate an approximate contribution from wind forcing of 0.3 Sv (Sv ≡ 10 6 m 3 s −1 ), which is added to a 0.5–0.6-Sv contribution from atmospheric pressure. Fukumori et al. (2007) analyze altimetric sea level observations, from which

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A. Köhl, D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle

1. Introduction In this paper we describe the results of a global synthesis obtained by the Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO) Consortium (see Stammer et al. 2002a ) on a 1° spatial grid (±80°) for the 11-yr period 1992–2002. The synthesis is obtained by forcing the ECCO ocean circulation model to near consistency (within specified error margins) with most of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) observations by using the model’s adjoint to modify the initial

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Jochem Marotzke, Lee-Lueng Fu, and Eli Tziperman

) vividly remembers, from the pre-TOPEX/Poseidon days, how a seminar participant scoffed: “Of course it’s the frequency. Have you ever seen an observed [oceanic] wavenumber spectrum?” This certainty is gone for good! Carl was the intellectual creator and scientific driving force behind the largest oceanographic experiment ever, the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE), the in situ counterpart to global altimetry. For the first time, physical oceanography took a global perspective—at a time when the

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Felix W. Landerer, Johann H. Jungclaus, and Jochem Marotzke

depth layer for different ocean basins. These results then provide a reference estimate of regional thermosteric and halosteric sea level anomalies in connection to large-scale ocean circulation changes in a realistic climate change simulation. Decadal heat storage variability through volcanic aerosol forcing ( Church et al. 2005 ) and the contribution of eustatic sources (glacial melting and land storage) are not taken into account in our simulation. The simulations were performed using the fully

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Walter Munk and Bruce Bills

-period species. The diurnal rotation of Earth generates semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies, akin to a conversion from DC to AC electric current. The semidiurnal and diurnal spectra in tide potential are complex spectral clusters, with cpm, cpy, and cpn fine structure related to the nonlinearity of Newton–Kepler (NK) orbital dynamics (tidal potential ∼1/ r 3 ). The long-period ocean forcing is not attributed to the primary long-period tidal species (18.6 yr, 41 000 yr) but to the spectral fine structure

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Manfred Wenzel and Jens Schröter

annual cycle). To find a consistent reanalysis of the measured sea level rise and its regional distribution, it is insufficient to apply local corrections in temperature or sea surface height or vertical adjustment (heave). Only an optimization of the forcing of the ocean that leads to sustained circulation changes and thus indirectly to sea level changes can be successful. In the present paper the ocean-state estimation technique employed constrains an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) by data

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D. Roemmich, J. Gilson, R. Davis, P. Sutton, S. Wijffels, and S. Riser

decadal trends, plus large interannual variability represented in the northern and southern annular modes, have provided a substantial fraction of the low-frequency wind forcing for subtropical and subpolar ocean circulation variability. In the North Atlantic, Curry and McCartney (2001) described an increase of about 30% in the Gulf Stream and North Atlantic Current transport between 1970 and 1995, forced by increases in wind stress and buoyancy fluxes. They showed a similarity between this

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