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Jonathan J. Gourley, Scott E. Giangrande, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Terry Schuur, and Jasper A. Vrugt

upgrade the nationwide network of the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radar with polarimetric capability. A reasonable expectation is that improvements in rainfall rate estimation will lead to better skill in hydrologic simulation of stream discharge. This is of particular importance in the context of flooding, the second deadliest of all weather-related hazards in the United States; heat is the number one killer ( Ashley and Ashley 2008 ). Accurate forcing data is a prerequisite for

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F. M. Ralph, T. Coleman, P. J. Neiman, R. J. Zamora, and M. D. Dettinger

network at five sites within 40 km of CZD are used. In the initial step to gauge the impact of orographic forcing on precipitation generation and, ultimately, on soil moisture and streamflow responses, the upslope component of the winds measured by the BBY wind profiler in a 500-m-thick orographic controlling layer centered at 1 km MSL was determined hourly [see Neiman et al. (2002) for the detailed methodology and motivation of using this approach]. Given that the mean orientation of the crest of

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

Central Valley by the CNRFC ( Fig. 4a ). The trend of both the CNRFC and NWRFC to overforecast in the valleys and mountain lee regions reflects the influences of the topography on QPFs. The orographic nature of the precipitation strongly influences the QPF errors by providing a non-time-varying forcing, which allows QPFs in mountainous areas to have greater skill than in other regions (e.g., Central Valley and inland valley) without such strong forcing. To better illustrate the range and daily

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

variables The WRF model is configured to run in a regional domain with options to add nested inner domains with finer resolutions. The regional forecast runs use lateral boundary conditions from global forecast systems such as the NCEP Global Forecast System (GFS). The large-scale forcing is applied at the outer domain boundaries. In a nested domain run, the inner-domain boundary conditions are provided through the interaction with the outer domain. The cloud-resolving microphysics from GCE model ( Tao

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Masamichi Ohba, Shinji Kadokura, Yoshikatsu Yoshida, Daisuke Nohara, and Yasushi Toyoda

winter to the following summer. The delayed Indian–Pacific Ocean anomalous SST gradient significantly affects the northwestern Pacific climate, including the modification of the baiu front activity. Therefore, it could be conceivable that the change in frequency of heavy precipitation is not only affected by the Pacific SST forcing. As represented above, ENSO may have a much greater impact on short-term variations than long-term trends. In addition to the short-term variations, some previous studies

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Yudong Tian, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, and John B. Eylander

the ocean when gauge data do not exist. This method works best when the errors in different satellite-based estimates are independent, but this condition is usually not satisfied. The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) has been producing a real-time global precipitation analysis, based on PMW and IR retrievals, superseded by gauge reports from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO)’s Global Telecommunication System (GTS). But the gauge reports available from GTS in real time are rather sparse

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

. A. , and Lee W.-C. , 1995 : Forcing of flow reversal along the windward slopes of Hawaii . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 123 , 3466 – 3480 . Castello, A. F. , and Shelton M. L. , 2004 : Winter precipitation on the U.S. Pacific coast and El Niño–Southern Oscillation Events . Int. J. Climatol. , 24 , 481 – 497 . Cayan, D. R. , and Roads J. O. , 1984 : Local relationships between U.S. West Coast precipitation and monthly mean circulation parameters . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 112 , 1276 – 1282

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James A. Smith, Gabriele Villarini, and Mary Lynn Baeck

forcing and the scaling properties of convective rainfall in mountainous regions. J. Hydrometeor. , 9 , 327 – 347 . 10.1175/2007JHM839.1 Pettitt, A. N. , 1979 : A non-parametric approach to the change-point problem. Appl. Stat. , 28 , 126 – 135 . 10.2307/2346729 Pontrelli, M. D. , Bryan G. , and Fritsch J. M. , 1999 : The Madison County flash flood of 27 June 1995. Wea. Forecasting , 14 , 384 – 404 . 10.1175/1520-0434(1999)014<0384:TMCVFF>2.0.CO;2 Robinson, J. S. , and

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Timothy J. Lang, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

of only one particular type ( Boccippio et al. 2005 ). Variability in microphysical structure is commonly observed as a function of meteorological forcing. For example, in the Amazon basin easterly low-level winds typically result in convection that is more continental in character, whereas westerly flow results in a more maritime structure ( Cifelli et al. 2002 , 2004 ; Halverson et al. 2002 ; Petersen et al. 2002 ; Rickenbach et al. 2002 ; Silva Dias et al. 2002 ). Another example is in

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