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J. Sander, J. F. Eichner, E. Faust, and M. Steuer

Fig. 2 , the short-term variability and also the mean level of loss are observably enhanced in the latter half of the period as compared to the earlier half (see Fig. 2 and the supplemental material ). The new concept presented here is to compare this pattern of change to the time series of severe thunderstorm forcing as inferred from reanalysis data. This way, we address the question whether changes in the hazard can be deemed responsible for changes in normalized losses. An analogous approach

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Kyle Andrew Poyar and Nancy Beller-Simms

adaptation decisions. Ecol. Econ. , 30 , 67 – 78 . 10.1016/S0921-8009(98)00117-7 Hallegatte, S. , 2009 : Strategies to adapt to an uncertain climate change. Global Environ. Change , 19 , 240 – 247 . 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.12.003 Hayhoe, K. , and Wuebbles D. , 2008 : Climate change and Chicago: Projections and potential impacts. Chicago Climate Change Task Force Rep., 33 pp . Hayhoe, K. , VanDorn J. , Croley T. II , Schlegal N. , and Wuebbles D. , 2010 : Regional climate

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Rebecca E. Morss and Mary H. Hayden

generally aware of the risks to property posed by hurricane-force winds. However, the ways that interviewees prepared, again, suggests that some were not aware of the coastal flood risk associated with hurricanes in general and Hurricane Ike in particular. 2) Evacuation decisions Other than preparing their residences, a major way that people can lower their risk from an approaching hurricane is to go somewhere safer. One interviewee was not in the Texas Gulf coast region when Hurricane Ike approached

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Mary McRae, Ross A. Lee, Scott Steinschneider, and Frank Galgano

of the actual altitude at which the aircraft is operating, it will perform as though it were operating at an altitude equal to the existing DA ( FAA 2016 ). High DA impacts aircraft performance in the following ways: reduction in power because the engine takes in less air, reduction in thrust because a propeller is less efficient in thin air, and reduction in lift because the thin air exerts less force on the airfoils ( FAA 2016 ; Reynolds 2012 ). These impacts are not trivial and can be

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Xianhua Wu, Zhe Xu, Hui Liu, Ji Guo, and Lei Zhou

to rising costs of reconstruction and rehabilitation, and the surging demand would attract labor force flooding in, thus increasing the employment rate. Strobl and Walsh (2009) studied the impact of hurricanes on the employment of the American construction industry and found that hurricanes increased the employment rate by an average of 25%. Zissimopoulos and Karoly (2010) found that a year after Hurricane Katrina, Louisiana and Mississippi developed a relatively high rate of self

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David A. Call

storm impacts associated with nine storms that affected the eastern or southern United States from 1886 to 2000. It will also examine the vulnerability of electrical distribution systems to ice storms and offer some suggestions for changes in practice by utility companies. Ice storms disrupt utility service, force schools to close, and hurt the agricultural sector but benefit hotels and hardware stores. Nonetheless, the biggest impact of ice storms is the disruption of electrical service. 2

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Tanya M. Brown, William H. Pogorzelski, and Ian M. Giammanco

homes and businesses each year, along with modern development trends that place buildings closely together on small lots. Additionally, damaged materials are being replaced well before the end of their expected lifespan, creating additional waste despite attempts at recycling materials ( Simmons 2013 ). This study utilized insurance claims and policy-in-force data to evaluate roofing material type with regard to resiliency to hailstone impacts. Relative damage costs associated with roofing systems

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Auwal F. Abdussalam, Andrew J. Monaghan, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Vanja M. Dukic, Mary H. Hayden, Thomas M. Hopson, John E. Thornes, and Gregor C. Leckebusch

–35 and 2060–75, by forcing it with an ensemble of downscaled future climate simulations. Projected outcomes are expressed as the rate of cases per 100 000 persons within the hospitals’ catchment population. The catchment population of each hospital was estimated by taking the ratio of its cases versus the total cases in the district for the period 2007–11, during which district-level data were available, and then multiplying the ratio by the entire district population, which gave us an estimated

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Jeffrey Czajkowski and James Done

1. Introduction Much of the existing hurricane loss research is focused at a relatively aggregate scale over many storms where maximum wind speed at landfall (raised between the third and ninth power) is found to explain the largest variance in loss ( Mendelsohn et al. 2012 ; Murphy and Strobl 2010 ; Nordhaus 2006 , 2010 ; Schmidt et al. 2009 , 2010 ). 1 However, it is quite plausible that other physical wind field characteristics, such as duration of hurricane force winds, as well as

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Roger Turner

the credibility and accuracy of weather forecasting actually shut down public forecasts between 1866 and 1879. Aviation’s powerful influence led to the Met Office being transplanted after World War I into the Air Ministry, the branch of the British government responsible for the Royal Air Force as well as civil aviation. And neoliberal efforts to apply market discipline to government agencies made the Met Office a reluctant pioneer in pricing weather data in the mid-1990s. This readable and

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