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P. C. S. Devara, P. E. Raj, K. K. Dani, G. Pandithurai, M. C. R. Kalapureddy, S. M. Sonbawne, Y. J. Rao, and S. K. Saha

forcing influences the aerosol patterns that are formed because of surface-generated aerosols, especially during the early morning transition from a stable to convective boundary layer and the late evening transition from a convective to a stable boundary layer ( Lenshow et al. 1979 ). Lidars play an important role in these studies because of their capability to make very precise continuous measurements of different aerosol and cloud parameters ( McCormick et al. 1993 ). Detailed knowledge of aerosols

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Rod Frehlich, Yannick Meillier, and Michael L. Jensen

; Klipp and Mahrt 2004 ; Baas et al. 2006 ). In addition, the separation of the atmospheric variables into a turbulent component and a mean or slowly variable component can be ill posed, especially for statistics such as variances and fluxes for challenging conditions such as stable boundary layers ( Kaimal and Finnigan 1994 ; Mahrt 1998 ; Vickers and Mahrt 2003 ) and larger-scale forcing such as with a density current and a frontal passage ( Piper and Lundquist 2004 ). The standard analysis

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Simon P. Alexander and Toshitaka Tsuda

rate and effect of humidity on turbulence echo power revealed by MU-radar–RASS measurements. J. Atmos. Solar-Terr. Phys. , 63 , 285 – 294 . 10.1016/S1364-6826(00)00130-9 Görsdorf, U. , and Lehmann V. , 2000 : Enhanced accuracy of RASS-measured temperatures due to an improved range correction. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 17 , 406 – 416 . 10.1175/1520-0426(2000)017<0406:EAORMT>2.0.CO;2 Hamilton, K. , 1981 : Latent heat as a possible forcing mechanism for atmospheric tides. Mon. Wea

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Daniela Nowak, Dominique Ruffieux, Judith L. Agnew, and Laurent Vuilleumier

on the statistics of cloud properties derived from cloud radar and lidar at SIRTA. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 . L11805, doi:10.1029/2005GL025340 . Ramanathan, V. , Cess R. D. , Harrison E. F. , Minnis P. , Barkstrom B. R. , Ahmad E. , and Hartmann D. , 1989 : Cloud radiative forcing and climate: Results from the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment. Science , 243 , 57 – 63 . 10.1126/science.243.4887.57 Richner, H. , 1999 : Grundlagen aerologischer Messungen speziell mittels

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Reginald J. Hill, W. Alan Brewer, and Sara C. Tucker

obtain this result more simply than Edson et al. (1998) did because we did not begin with the ship’s center-of-mass coordinate system, which Edson et al. (1998) did in their Eq. (4) . They point out that the location of the ship’s center of mass is unknown. Also, its location varies with the ship’s ballast trim. It is conceptually not useful because the center of mass is not in uniform motion because of ocean forcings of the ship. If we use the center-of-mass coordinate system to express the

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V. Bellantone, I. Carofalo, F. De Tomasi, M. R. Perrone, M. Santese, A. M. Tafuro, and A. Turnone

radiative forcing due to troposphere aerosols. The uniform distribution of aerosol particles with altitude is the strongest assumption in the methodology suggested in this last section. Lidar profiles have been used to support this assumption during the dust outbreak analyzed in the paper. Nevertheless, we have found that ground-based in situ measurements and sun/sky radiometer measurements further support lidar measurements. 5. Summary and conclusions Ground-based in situ measurements and remote

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Danny E. Scipión, Phillip B. Chilson, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Robert D. Palmer

1. Introduction Turbulence in the daytime atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) is primarily forced by heating of the surface, radiational cooling from clouds at the CBL top, or by both mechanisms. The CBL is considered clear when no clouds are present ( Holtslag and Duynkerke 1998 ), as in this study. In this case, the main forcing mechanism in the CBL is heating of the surface. Turbulent convective motions in the CBL transport the heat upward in the form of convective plumes or thermals

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