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Juan A. Saenz, Rémi Tailleux, Edward D. Butler, Graham O. Hughes, and Kevin I. C. Oliver

1. Introduction The global kinetic energy (KE) budget plays a key role in ocean energetics, for it is often the natural starting point for discussing how the ocean circulation is forced and dissipated. In its standard form, the kinetic energy budget reveals that kinetic energy is primarily controlled by 1) the power input due to the wind forcing and tidal forcing, 2) viscous dissipation, and 3) the net conversion between potential energy (PE) and kinetic energy ( Gregory and Tailleux 2011 ). Of

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Sean Haney, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Adrean Webb

flow velocity, and L is a characteristic length scale) that distinguish the submesoscale from larger-scale motions. The balance struck between turbulent mixing and restratification processes, such as geostrophic adjustment, restratifying instabilities, and penetrating solar heating, is very important for organisms that live in the mixed layer. Frontal instabilities that drive restratification are able to compete with destabilizing surface forcing in winter and enhance phytoplankton blooms (e

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Peter E. Hamlington, Luke P. Van Roekel, Baylor Fox-Kemper, Keith Julien, and Gregory P. Chini

specific physical setting for our investigation is the evolution (or spindown) of an initially uniform large-scale temperature front. The simulations are performed by numerically solving the wave-averaged Boussinesq (WAB) equations, which are commonly used in studies of Langmuir turbulence and account for the effects of surface waves through additional Stokes drift forcing terms ( Craik and Leibovich 1976 ; Gjaja and Holm 1996 ; Holm 1996 ; McWilliams et al. 2004 ). The simulations span scales

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R. M. Holmes and L. N. Thomas

a set of 3D nested simulations of the equatorial Pacific performed with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) ( Shchepetkin and McWilliams 2005 ). The outer nest is a Pacific basinwide simulation over the region 30°S to 30°N, −240° to −70°E with 0.25° horizontal resolution, 50 vertical levels, and a time step of 10 min. It was spun up for 5 yr, initialized from a previous 10-yr spinup run ( Holmes et al. 2014 ). Daily climatological surface forcing, initial conditions, and boundary

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Jonathan Gula, M. Jeroen Molemaker, and James C. McWilliams

of the topography at the grid scale. Terrain-following models such as ROMS have computational restrictions with regards to the steepness and roughness of the topography ( Beckmann and Haidvogel 1993 ). Local smoothing is applied where the steepness of the topography exceeds a factor r max = 0.2. Lateral oceanic forcing for the largest domain as well as surface forcing for all simulations are climatological. Simulations are all forced at the surface by a mean monthly climatology of Quick

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Roy Barkan, Kraig B. Winters, and Stefan G. Llewellyn Smith

1. Introduction and motivation The general circulation of the ocean is forced by surface fluxes of momentum, heat, and freshwater at basin scales. A large fraction of the kinetic energy E k associated with the large-scale forcing must be dissipated at molecular scales in order for the circulation to remain approximately steady. The E k pathways across this wide range of scales remain poorly understood ( Ferrari and Wunsch 2009 ). Possible routes to dissipation include nonlinear internal

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Navid C. Constantinou

1. Introduction The Southern Ocean, and in particular the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), are key elements of the climate system. The ACC is driven by a combination of strong westerly winds and buoyancy forcing. Straub (1993) advanced the remarkable hypothesis that the equilibrated ACC zonal transport should be insensitive to the strength of the wind stress forcing. This insensitivity was later verified in eddy-resolving ocean models of the Southern Ocean and is now referred to as eddy

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Carlowen A. Smith, Kevin G. Speer, and Ross W. Griffiths

. 2003 ; Herbei et al. 2008 ). The study of the development of quasi-zonal jets in geophysical contexts has an extensive background. Panetta (1993) examined the emergence of such jets over long time scales in numerical simulations and emphasized the need for large-scale forcing, so that the flow itself determines the scales of interaction. Treguier and Panetta (1994) examined these ideas in the context of a model of the ACC and found multiple jets; large-scale topography was found to create

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Michael A. Spall

known, but it is thought that both baroclinic eddies (e.g., Manley and Hunkins 1985 ) and wind forcing (e.g., Pickart et al. 2013 ) may be important. This stable stratification allows the surface waters to become very cold and for ice to form. This provides an effective barrier to strong exchange between the waters below the upper halocline and the atmosphere, although there is a net heat loss of O (2 − 10 W m −2 ) from the ocean to the ice (e.g., Maykut 1982 ; Krishfield and Perovich 2005

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Masoud Jalali, Vamsi K. Chalamalla, and Sutanu Sarkar

dynamics, that is, it is the length scale of turbulent motion at which there is a balance between buoyancy force and inertial force. There are observational studies ( Ferron et al. 1998 ; Wesson and Gregg 1994 ; Moum 1996 ) suggesting that statistical measures of L T and L O are linearly related, and in some cases may even be approximately equal: L T ≈ L O ( Peters et al. 1988 ; Dillon 1982 ). There are several studies concerning the relationship between L T and L O , for example, Dillon

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