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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

. Longwave radiative forcing associated with moisture and cloud anomalies is also often cited as the main source of moist static energy for the MJO ( Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ). For example, in the Chikira and Sugiyama (2013) cumulus scheme, radiative heating anomalies moisten the lower and middle troposphere through vertical advection. Finally, a convection–surface flux feedback through nonlinear wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) was proposed by Maloney and Sobel (2004

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

(CombRet) product ( Feng et al. 2014 ). Combining the all-sky and clear retrievals gives us an estimate of the cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Satellite-estimated rainfall data were from the TRMM 3B42 V7 product at 0.25°, 3-h resolution ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). Radar rainfall data from the Mirai , Revelle , and Gan-S-Pol at 10-min resolution covering a 320 km × 320 km domain at each site were obtained from the DYNAMO legacy data archive and averaged into 3-hourly bins to facilitate comparison with

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Adrian J. Matthews, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Karen J. Heywood, Piotr J. Flatau, and Sunke Schmidtko

how this varies under different environmental forcing conditions, particularly those associated with active and inactive phases of the MJO. Simple models of the diurnal warm layer under different environmental conditions are then developed, with the aim of informing (climate) model development. 2. Data processing a. External data sources Sea surface temperature data were extracted from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) optimum interpolation (OI) version 2 dataset

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Tim Li, Chongbo Zhao, Pang-chi Hsu, and Tomoe Nasuno

between day-to-day weather and El Niño–Southern Oscillation, MJO is a major predictability source for extended-range (10–30 days) weather prediction. The least understood aspect of MJO is its initiation process [see Li (2014) for a recent review on this topic]. A number of theories have been advanced in an attempt to understand the initiation mechanism. These theories can be classified according to a tropical or an extratropical origin. The tropical origin hypotheses include a forcing from upstream

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Simon P. de Szoeke and Eric D. Maloney

planetary-scale intraseasonal convective anomalies. Among many possible positive feedbacks, surface fluxes have been proposed to destabilize the atmosphere to the MJO ( Krishnamurti et al. 1988 ; Maloney and Sobel 2004 ). An early theory for the MJO proposed wind-induced surface heat exchange as important for MJO destabilization and propagation ( Emanuel 1987 ; Neelin et al. 1987 ). Forcing an atmospheric model with fluxes due to strong SST anomalies enhances its intraseasonal convection (e

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Hyodae Seo, Aneesh C. Subramanian, Arthur J. Miller, and Nicholas R. Cavanaugh

SCOAR simulations are carried out with varied coupling frequency (CF) between ROMS and WRF in otherwise identical configurations ( Table 1 ). CF is varied from 1 (CF1) to 3 (CF3) to 6 (CF6) to 24 h (CF24). Thus, in CF1, hourly-averaged atmospheric forcing and SST are exchanged, representing the best-resolved diurnal coupling, while in CF24 the daily-mean fields are interchanged, lacking the diurnal effect of the upper ocean. Besides the coupled runs, two complementary WRF-only simulations were

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Simon P. de Szoeke, James B. Edson, June R. Marion, Christopher W. Fairall, and Ludovic Bariteau

maximum amplitude is obtained in the central Indian Ocean. REFERENCES Anderson , S. P. , R. A. Weller , and R. B. Lukas , 1996 : Surface buoyancy forcing and the mixed layer of the western Pacific warm pool: Observations and 1D model results . J. Climate , 9 , 3056 – 3085 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<3056:SBFATM>2.0.CO;2 . Back , L. E. , and C. S. Bretherton , 2009 : On the relationship between SST gradients, boundary layer winds, and convergence over the tropical oceans . J

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Shuguang Wang, Adam H. Sobel, Fuqing Zhang, Y. Qiang Sun, Ying Yue, and Lei Zhou

.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1089:LFOIRC>2.0.CO;2 . Hung , M.-P. , J.-L. Lin , W. Wang , D. Kim , T. Shinoda , and S. J. Weaver , 2013 : MJO and convectively coupled equatorial waves simulated by CMIP5 climate models . J. Climate , 26 , 6185 – 6214 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00541.1 . Iacono , M. J. , J. S. Delamere , E. J. Mlawer , M. W. Shephard , S. A. Clough , and W. D. Collins , 2008 : Radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases: Calculations with the AER radiative transfer models . J

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