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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

1. Introduction The West African monsoon (WAM) system strongly affects livelihoods in northern tropical Africa. The highly weather-dependent agricultural sector employs 60% of the work force in West Africa and contributes 35% of the gross domestic product (GDP; Jalloh et al. 2013 ). As the WAM exhibits considerable variability on daily to subseasonal time scales ( Janicot et al. 2011 ), farmers and pastoralists can substantially benefit from weather forecasts and adapt their cropping ( Roudier

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, and Peter Vogel

://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<3890:COSROT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2001)129<3890:COSROT>2.0.CO;2 FAO , 2016 : AQUASTAT. FAO, http://www.fao.org/nr/aquastat . Fink , A. H. , and P. Speth , 1997 : Some potential forcing mechanisms of the year-to-year variability of the tropical convection and its intraseasonal (25–70-day) variability . Int. J. Climatol. , 17 , 1513 – 1534 , https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0088(19971130)17:14<1513::AID-JOC210>3.0.CO;2-U . 10.1002/(SICI)1097

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Georgios Fragkoulidis and Volkmar Wirth

: Baroclinic instability . Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. , 27 , 419 – 467 , https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.fl.27.010195.002223 . 10.1146/annurev.fl.27.010195.002223 Plumb , R. A. , 1986 : Three-dimensional propagation of transient quasi-geostrophic eddies and its relationship with the eddy forcing of the time–mean flow . J. Atmos. Sci. , 43 , 1657 – 1678 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1657:TDPOTQ>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1986)043<1657:TDPOTQ>2.0.CO;2 Quinting , J. F. , and F

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